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WELDING METALLURGY SECOND EDITION by Sindo Kou
Ravi Chopra

WELDING METALLURGY SECOND EDITION by Sindo Kou

Ravi Chopra | 24-Feb-2016 |
Introduction , THE FUSION ZONE , THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE , THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE , Introduction , THE FUSION ZONE , THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE , THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE ,

Hi friends, here Ravi Chopra uploaded notes for WELDING METALLURGY and Mechanical Metallurgy with title WELDING METALLURGY SECOND EDITION by Sindo Kou. You can download this lecture notes, ebook by clicking on the below file name or icon.


CONTENTS
I INTRODUCTION 1
1 Fusion Welding Processes 3
1.1 Overview 3
1.2 Oxyacetylene Welding 7
1.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding 11
1.4 Gas–Tungsten Arc Welding 13
1.5 Plasma Arc Welding 16
1.6 Gas–Metal Arc Welding 19
1.7 Flux-Core Arc Welding 22
1.8 Submerged Arc Welding 22
1.9 Electroslag Welding 24
1.10 Electron Beam Welding 27
1.11 Laser Beam Welding 29
References 33
Further Reading 34
Problems 34
2 Heat Flow in Welding 37
2.1 Heat Source 37
2.2 Analysis of Heat Flow in Welding 47
2.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 53
2.4 Weld Thermal Simulator 58
References 60
Further Reading 62
Problems 62
3 Chemical Reactions in Welding 65
3.1 Overview 65
3.2 Gas–Metal Reactions 68
3.3 Slag–Metal Reactions 82
References 92
Further Reading 95
Problems 95
4 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding 97
4.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs 97
4.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools 103
4.3 Metal Evaporation 114
4.4 Active Flux GTAW 116
References 117
Further Reading 119
Problems 120
5 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue 122
5.1 Residual Stresses 122
5.2 Distortion 126
5.3 Fatigue 131
5.4 Case Studies 137
References 140
Further Reading 141
Problems 141
II THE FUSION ZONE 143
6 Basic Solidification Concepts 145
6.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification 145
6.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling 155
6.3 Microsegregation and Banding 160
6.4 Effect of Cooling Rate 163
6.5 Solidification Path 166
References 167
Further Reading 168
Problems 169
7 Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure 170
7.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 170
7.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary 172
7.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone 174
7.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure 174
7.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms 178
7.6 Grain Structure Control 187
References 195
Further Reading 197
Problems 197
8 Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains 199
8.1 Solidification Modes 199
8.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing 204
8.3 Effect of Welding Parameters 206
8.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains 209
References 213
Further Reading 213
Problems 214
9 Post-Solidification Phase Transformations 216
9.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless
Steel Welds 216
9.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon,
Low-Alloy Steel Welds 232
References 239
Further Reading 241
Problems 241
10 Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities 243
10.1 Microsegregation 243
10.2 Banding 249
10.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity 250
10.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary 252
10.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal 255
References 260
Further Reading 261
Problems 261
11 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking 263
11.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing 263
11.2 Metallurgical Factors 268
11.3 Mechanical Factors 284
11.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking 285
11.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan 295
References 296
Further Reading 299
Problems 299
III THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE 301
12 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone 303
12.1 Evidence of Liquation 303
12.2 Liquation Mechanisms 304
12.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material 314
12.4 Grain Boundary Segregation 314
12.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes 316
12.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons 318
References 318
Problems 319
13 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone 321
13.1 Liquation Cracking 321
13.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility 328
13.3 Hydrogen Cracking 328
13.4 Remedies 330
References 336
Problems 338
IV THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE 341
14 Work-Hardened Materials 343
14.1 Background 343
14.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding 347
14.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process 349
References 351
Further Reading 352
Problems 352
15 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys 353
15.1 Background 353
15.2 Al–Cu–Mg and Al–Mg–Si Alloys 359
15.3 Al–Zn–Mg Alloys 367
15.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys 370
References 371
Further Reading 372
Problems 372
16 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys 375
16.1 Background 375
16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength 379
16.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking 384
References 390
Further Reading 392
Problems 392
17 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and
Alloy Steels 393
17.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams 393
17.2 Carbon Steels 396
17.3 Low-Alloy Steels 404
17.4 Hydrogen Cracking 410
17.5 Reheat Cracking 418
17.6 Lamellar Tearing 422
17.7 Case Studies 425
References 427
Further Reading 429
Problems 430
18 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels 431
18.1 Classification of Stainless Steels 431
18.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels 433
18.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels 446
18.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels 449
18.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe 451
References 452
Further Reading 453
Problems 454

 

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