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A HEAT TRANSFER TEXTBOOK THIRD EDITION by John H. Lienhard IV and John H. Lienhard V
Ravi Chopra

A HEAT TRANSFER TEXTBOOK THIRD EDITION by John H. Lienhard IV and John H. Lienhard V

Ravi Chopra | 24-Feb-2016 |
The General Problem of Heat Exchange , Introduction , Heat conduction concepts , Thermal resistance , Heat transfer coefficient , Heat exchanger design , Analysis of Heat Conduction , Analysis of heat conduction and some steady one-dimensional problems , Transient and multidimensional heat conduction , Convective Heat Transfer , Laminar and turbulent boundary layers , Forced convection in a variety of configurations , Natural convection in single-phase fluids and during film condensation , Heat transfer in boiling and other phase-change configurations , Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer , Mass Transfer ,

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Contents
I The General Problem of Heat Exchange 1
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 Relation of heat transfer to thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3 Modes of heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4 A look ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2 Heat conduction concepts, thermal resistance, and the overall
heat transfer coefficient 49
2.1 The heat diffusion equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.2 Solutions of the heat diffusion equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.3 Thermal resistance and the electrical analogy . . . . . . . . . 62
2.4 Overall heat transfer coefficient, U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3 Heat exchanger design 99
3.1 Function and configuration of heat exchangers . . . . . . . . 99
3.2 Evaluation of the mean temperature difference in a heat
exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.3 Heat exchanger effectiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3.4 Heat exchanger design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
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II Analysis of Heat Conduction 139
4 Analysis of heat conduction and some steady one-dimensional
problems 141
4.1 The well-posed problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.2 The general solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.3 Dimensional analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.4 An illustration of dimensional analysis in a complex steady
conduction problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
4.5 Fin design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5 Transient and multidimensional heat conduction 193
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
5.2 Lumped-capacity solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.3 Transient conduction in a one-dimensional slab . . . . . . . 203
5.4 Temperature-response charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
5.5 One-term solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
5.6 Transient heat conduction to a semi-infinite region . . . . . 220
5.7 Steady multidimensional heat conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
5.8 Transient multidimensional heat conduction . . . . . . . . . . 247
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
III Convective Heat Transfer 267
6 Laminar and turbulent boundary layers 269
6.1 Some introductory ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
6.2 Laminar incompressible boundary layer on a flat surface 276
6.3 The energy equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
6.4 The Prandtl number and the boundary layer thicknesses 296
6.5 Heat transfer coefficient for laminar, incompressible flow
over a flat surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
6.6 The Reynolds analogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
6.7 Turbulent boundary layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
6.8 Heat transfer in turbulent boundary layers . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
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7 Forced convection in a variety of configurations 341
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
7.2 Heat transfer to and from laminar flows in pipes . . . . . . 342
7.3 Turbulent pipe flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
7.4 Heat transfer surface viewed as a heat exchanger . . . . . . 367
7.5 Heat transfer coefficients for noncircular ducts . . . . . . . . 370
7.6 Heat transfer during cross flow over cylinders . . . . . . . . . 374
7.7 Other configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
8 Natural convection in single-phase fluids and during film
condensation 397
8.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
8.2 The nature of the problems of film condensation and of
natural convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
8.3 Laminar natural convection on a vertical isothermal
surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
8.4 Natural convection in other situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
8.5 Film condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
9 Heat transfer in boiling and other phase-change configurations 457
9.1 Nukiyama’s experiment and the pool boiling curve . . . . . 457
9.2 Nucleate boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
9.3 Peak pool boiling heat flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
9.4 Film boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
9.5 Minimum heat flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
9.6 Transition boiling and system influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
9.7 Forced convection boiling in tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
9.8 Forced convective condensation heat transfer . . . . . . . . . 505
9.9 Dropwise condensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
9.10 The heat pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
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IV Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer 523
10 Radiative heat transfer 525
10.1 The problem of radiative exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
10.2 Kirchhoff’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
10.3 Radiant heat exchange between two finite black bodies . 536
10.4 Heat transfer among gray bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
10.5 Gaseous radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
10.6 Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
V Mass Transfer 595
11 An introduction to mass transfer 597
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597
11.2 Mixture compositions and species fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
11.3 Diffusion fluxes and Fick’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
11.4 Transport properties of mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
11.5 The equation of species conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
11.6 Mass transfer at low rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
11.7 Steady mass transfer with counterdiffusion . . . . . . . . . . . 648
11.8 Mass transfer coefficients at high rates of mass transfer . 654
11.9 Simultaneous heat and mass transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686

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