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Fundamentals of Power System Protection by Y.G. Paithankar and S.R. Bhide full ebook pdf
Neeraj Yadav

Fundamentals of Power System Protection by Y.G. Paithankar and S.R. Bhide full ebook pdf

Neeraj Yadav | 26-Feb-2016 |
Fundamentals of Power System Protection , OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES , DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION , TRANSFORMER PROTECTION , BUSBAR PROTECTION , DISTANCE PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES , CARRIER-AIDED PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES , STATIC COMPARATORS AS RELAYS , INDUCTION MOTOR PROTECTION , NUMERICAL PROTECTION ,

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Introduction

Dependence of Modern Society on Electric Supply I
Faults and Abnormal Operating Conditions I
1.2.1 Shunt Faults (Short Circuits) 1
1.2.2 Causes of Shunt Faults 3
1.2.3 Effects of Shunt Faults 3
1.3 Classification of Shunt Faults 5
1.3.1 Phase Faults and Ground Faults 5
1.3.2 Phasor Diagram of Voltages and Currents During Various Faults 5
1.3.3 Series Faults 7
Abnormal Operating Conditions 9
1.4.1 Should Protective Relays Trip During Abnormal Operating
Conditions? 9
1.4.2 Can Protective Relays Prevent Faults? 9
.3 What are Protective Relays Supposed to Do? 9
volution of Power Systems 9
1.5.1 Isolated Power System 10
1.5.2 Interconnected Power System 10
1.5.3 Negative Synergy of an Interconnected System 10
ates of Operation of a Power System 11
.5.5 From Natural Monopoly to the Deregulated Power System 12
Protection System and Its Attributes 13
.6.1 Sensitivity 14
.6.2 Selectivity 14 ?-
.6.4 Reliability and Dependability 14
ystem Transducers 14
.7.1 Current Transformer 15
nsforrner 16
iii
1.7.3 Circuit Breaker 17
1.7.4 Trip Circuit of a CB 17
1 7 5 Organization of Protection 17
1.7 6 Zones of Protection 19
1 7.7 Primary and Back-up Protection 20
1.7.8 Maloperations 22
1.8 Various Power System Elements That Need Protection 23
1.9 Various Principles of Power System Protection 23
Reuiew Questions 24
Problems 25
2 OVER-CURRENT PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES 26-56
2.1 Introduction 26
2 2 Fuse 26
2.3 Thermal Relays 27
2.4 0; er-current Relay 28
2.4.1 Instantaneous OC Relay 29
2.4.2 Definite Time Over-current Relay 30
2.4.3 Inverse Time Over-current Relay 30
2.5 Implementation of Over-current Relay Using Induction Disk 32
2.6 Application of Definite Time OC Relays for Protection of a
Distribution Feeder 35
2.7 Application of Inverse Definite Minimum Time Relay on a
Distnbution Feeder 37
2.7.1 Choice Between IDMT and DTOC Relays 42
2.8 Protection of a Three-phase Feeder 42
2.9 Directional Over-current Relay 44
2.9 1 Other Situations Where Directional OC Relays are Necessary 45
2.9.2 Phasor Diagram for Voltage and Current for Forward and
Reverse Fault (Single-phase System) 47 1
2.9.3 Application of Directional Relay to a Three-phase Feeder 49
2.9.4 Directional OC Protection of a Three-phase Feeder 52
2.9.5 Directional Protection Under Non-fault Conditions *
(Reverse Power Relay) 53
2.10 Drawbacks of Over-current Relays 54
Reuzew Questions 55
Problems 56
3 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION 57-73
3.1 Introduction 57 j
\ 3.2 Dot Markings 57
3.3 Simple Differential Protection 59
3.3.1 Simple Differential Protection: Behaviour During Load 59 I
3.3.2 Simple Differential Protection: Behaviour During External Fault 60 I
3.3.3 Simple Differential Protection: Behaviour During Internal Fault 60
3.3.4 Simple Differential Protection, Double-end-fed: Behaviour
I During Internal Fault 61
i3unr~11rs Y
3.4 Zone of Protection of the Differential Relay 62
3 5 Actual Behavlour of a Simple Dlfferentlal Scheme 63
3 5 1 Through Fault Stability and Stabillcy Ratio 64
3.5.2 Equivalent Circuit of CT 65
3.6 Percentage Differential Relay 67
3.6.1 Block Diagram of Percentage Differential Relay 70
3.7 Earth Leakage Protection 71
3.7.1 Earth Leakage Protection for Single-phase Load 71
3.7.2 Earth Leakage Protection for Three-phase Loads 72
Reuzew QuestLons 73
Problems 73
4 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 74-100
4.1 Types of Transformers 74
4.2 Phasor Diagram for a Three-phase Transformer 75
4.3 Equivalent Circuit of Transformer 77
4.4 Types of Faults in Transformers 78
4 5 Over-current Protection 80
4.6 Percentage Differential Protection of Transformers 81
4.6 1 Development of Connections 81
4.6.2 Phase c-to-Ground (c-g) External Fault 82
4.6.3 Phase c-to-Ground (c-g) Internal Fault 84
4.7 Inrush Phenomenon 86
4.7.1 Percentage Differential Relay with Harmonic Restraint 89
4.8 High Resistance Ground Faults in Transformers 91
4.8 1 High Resistance Ground Faults on the Delta Side 91
4 8.2 High Resistance Ground Faults on the Star Side 92
4.9 Inter-turn Faults in Transformers 93
4 10 Incipient Faults in Transformers 93 * 4.10.1 Buchholz Relay 93
4.10.2 Analysis of Trapped Gases 95
4.11 Phenomenon of Over-fluxing in Transformers 95
4.11.1 Protection Against Over-fluxing 95
4.12 Transformer Protection Application Chart 96
4.13 An Illustrative Numerical Problem 97
Reuzew Questions 99
Problems 100
5 BUSBAR PROTECTION 101-117
.,
5.1 Introduction 101
5.2 Differential Protection of Busbars 102
5.2.1 Selection of CT Ratios in Case of Busbar Protection:
Wrong Method 102
5.2.2 Selection of CT Ratios in Case of Busbar Protection:
Correct Method 103
5 3 External and Internal Fault 104
.5.4 Actual Behaviour of a Protective CT 105
5.5 Circuit Model of Saturated CT 108
5.6 External Fault with One CT Saturated: Need for High Impedance
Busbar Protection 108
5.7 Minimum Internal Fault That Can Be Detected by the High
Impedance Busbar Differential Scheme 110
5.8 Stability Ratio of High Impedance Busbar Differential Scheme 112
5.9 Supervisory Relay 112
5.10 Protection of Three-phase Busbars 114
5.11 Numerical Example on Design of High Impedance Busbar Differential
Scheme 115
Review Questions 11 7
6 DISTANCE PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES 118-152
6.1 Drawbacks of Over-current Protection 118
6.2 Introduction to Distance Protection 119
6.3 Simple Impedance Relay 123
6.3.1 Trip Law for Simple Impedance Relay Using Universal
Torque Equation 123
6.3.2 Implementation of Simple Impedance Relay Using Balanced
Beam Structure 124
6.3.3 Performance of Simple Impedance Relay During Normal Load Flow 126
6.3 4 Effect of Arc Resistance on Reach of Simple Impedance Relay 126
6.3.5 Directional Property Exhibited by Simple Impedance Relay 127
6.3.6 Performance of Simple Impedance Relay During Power Swing 127
6.4 Reactance Relay 129
6.4.1 Trip Law for Reactance Relay Using Universal Torque Equation 129
6.4.2 Implementation of Reactance Relay Using the Induction
Cup Structure 131
6.4.3 Performance of Reactance Relay During Normal Load Flow 131
6.4.4 Effect of Arc Resistance on Reach of Reactance Relay 132
6.4.5 Directional Property Exhibited by Reactance Relay 133
6.4.6 Performance of Reactance Relay During Power Swing 134
6.5 Mho Relay 134
6.5.1 Trip Law for Mho Relay Using Universal Torque Equation 134
6.5.2 Implementation of Mho Relay Using Induction Cup Structure 135
6.5.3 Performance of Mho Relay During Normal Load Flow 135
6.5.4 Effect of Arc Resistance on Mho Relay Reach 136
6.5.5 Directional Property Exhibited by Mho Relay 137
6.5.6 Performance of Mho Relay During Power Swing 138
6.6 Comparison Between Distance Relays 139
6.7 Distance Protection of a Three-phase Line 139
6.7.1 Phase Faults 141
6.7.2 Ground Faults 142
6.7.3 Complete Protection of a Three-phase Line 144
--- Conrcnis vii . . 6.8 Reasons for Inaccuracy of Distance Relay Reach 145
6.9 Three-stepped Distance Protechon 146
6.9.1 First Step 146
6.9.2 Second Step 146
6.9.3 Third Step 147
6.10 Trip Contact Configuration for the Three-stepped Distance
Protection 149
6.11 Three-stepped Protection of Three-phase Line against All Ten Shunt
Faults 150
6.12 Impedance Seen from Relay Side 150
6.13 Three-stepped Protection of Double-end-fed Lines 151
Review Questions 152
e 7 CARRIER-AIDED PROTECTION OF TRANSMISSION LINES 153-167
7.1 Need for Carrier-aided Protection 153
7.2 Various Options for a Carrier 155
7.3 Coupling and Trapping the Carrier into the Desired Line Section 155
7.3.1 Single Line-to-ground Coupllng 157
7.3.2 Line-to-line Coupling 157
7.4 Unit Type Carrier-aided Directional Comparison Relaying 158
7.5 Carrier-aided Distance Schemes for Acceleration of Zone I1 160
7.5.1 Transfer Trip or Inter-trip 160
7.5.2 Permissive Inter-trip 161
7.5.3 Acceleration of Zone I1 161
7.5.4 Pre-acceleration of Zone I1 161
7.6 Phase Comparison Relaylng (Unit Scheme) 163
Review Questions 167
8 GENERATOR PROTECTION 168-183
8.1 Introduction 168
8.2 Electrical Circuit of the Generator 169
8.3 Various Faults and Abnormal Operating Conditions 172
8.3.1 Stator Faults 173
8.3.2 Stator Phase and Ground Faults 173
8.3.3 Transverse Differential Protection 174
8.4 Rotor Faults 175
8.5 Abnormal Operating Conditions 176
8.5.1 Unbalanced Loading 176
8.5.2 Over-speeding 178
8.5.3 Loss of Excltation 179
8.5.4 Protection Against Loss of Excitation Using Offset Mho Relay 180
8.5.5 Loss of Prime Mover 181
Revzew Questions 183
... YIII Coi~rrf~ts
9 INDUCTION MOTOR PROTECTION 184-195 '
9.1 Introduction 184
9.2 Various Faults and Abnormal Operating Conditions 184
9.3 Starting Current 185
9.4 Electrical Faults 186
9.4 1 Fault on Motor Terminals 186
9.4.2 Phase Faults Inside the Motor 186
9.4.3 Ground Faults Inside the Motor 188
9.4.4 Inter-turn Faults 189
9.5 Abnormal Operating Conditions from Supply Side 189
9.5.1 Unbalanced Supply Voltage 189
9.5.2 Single Phasing 191
9.5.3 Reduction in Supply Voltage 192
9.5.4 Reversal of Phases 192
9.6 Abnormal Operating Conditions from Mechanical Side 192
9.6.1 Failure of Bearing and Rotor Jam 192
9.6.2 Overload 192
9.7 Data Required for Designing Motor Protection Schemes 195
Review Questions 195
10 STATIC COMPARATORS AS RELAYS 196-221
10.1 Comparison vs Computation 196
10.2 Amplitude Comparator 196
10.3 Phase comparator 199
10.3.1 The Cosine-type Phase Comparator 199
10.3.2 The Sine-type Phase Comparator 200
10.4 Duality Between Amplitude and Phase Comparators 201
10.5 Synthesis of Various Distance Relays Using Static Comparators 204
10.5.1 Synthesis of Mho Relay Using Static Phase Comparator 204
10.5.2 Synthesis of Reactance Relay Using Cosine-type Phase Comparator 208
10.5.3 Synthesis of Simple Impedance Relay Using Amplitude Comparator 210 e
10.6 Development of an Electronic Circuit for Implementing
a Cosine-type Phase Comparator 210
10.7 An Electronic Circuit for Implementing a Sine-type Phase Comparator 216
10.8 Synthesis of Quadrilateral Distance Relay 218
Review Questions 221
11 NUMERICAL PROTECTION
11.1 Introduction 222
11.2 Block Diagram of Numerical Relay 223
11.3 Sampling Theorem 225
11.4 Correlation with a Reference Wave 228
11.4.1 Fourier Analysis of Analogue Signals 229 I 11.5 Least Error Squared (LES) Technique 237
~ .. Co~zrr~lts jx
11.6 Digital Filtering 239
11.6.1 Simple Low-pass Filter 239
11.6.2 Simple High-pass PLlter 240
11.6.3 Finite Impulse Response (XR) Filters 241
11.6.4 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filter 242
11.6.5 Comparison Between FIR and IIR Filters 243
11.7 Numerical Over-current Protection 243
11.8 Kumerical Transformer Differential Protection 245
11.9 Numerical Distance Protection of Transmission Line 245 -,
11.9.1 Mann and Morrison Method 245
11.9.2 Differential Equation Method 247
11.10 Algorithms and Assumptions 253
Review Questions 254

 

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