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Electric Power Distribution Equipment and Systems by T. A. Short
Neeraj Yadav

Electric Power Distribution Equipment and Systems by T. A. Short

Neeraj Yadav | 26-Feb-2016 |
EPS , Fundamentals of Distribution Systems , Overhead Lines , Underground Distribution , TRANSFORMERS , Voltage regulation , Capacitor Application ,

Hi friends, here Neeraj Yadav uploaded notes for Electric Power Distribution System with title Electric Power Distribution Equipment and Systems by T. A. Short. You can download this lecture notes, ebook by clicking on the below file name or icon.

1
Fundamentals of Distribution Systems ....................................... 1
1.1 Primary Distribution Configurations .......................................................4
1.2 Urban Networks...........................................................................................9
1.3 Primary Voltage Levels.............................................................................12
1.4 Distribution Substations ...........................................................................17
1.5 Subtransmission Systems .........................................................................20
1.6 Differences between European and North American Systems..........22
1.7 Loads............................................................................................................26
1.8 The Past and the Future ...........................................................................28
References...............................................................................................................30
2
Overhead Lines ............................................................................. 33
2.1 Typical Constructions................................................................................33
2.2 Conductor Data..........................................................................................38
2.3 Line Impedances ........................................................................................43
2.4 Simplified Line Impedance Calculations...............................................51
2.5 Line Impedance Tables..............................................................................57
2.6 Conductor Sizing .......................................................................................57
2.7 Ampacities...................................................................................................61
2.7.1 Neutral Conductor Sizing .........................................................71
2.8 Secondaries .................................................................................................73
2.9 Fault Withstand Capability ......................................................................74
2.9.1 Conductor Annealing.................................................................75
2.9.2 Burndowns...................................................................................77
2.10 Other Overhead Issues..............................................................................83
2.10.1 Connectors and Splices..............................................................83
2.10.2 Radio Frequency Interference...................................................86
References...............................................................................................................88
3
Underground Distribution........................................................... 91
3.1 Applications................................................................................................91
3.1.1 Underground Residential Distribution (URD) ......................92
3.1.2 Main Feeders ...............................................................................94
3.1.3 Urban Systems.............................................................................94
3.1.4 Overhead vs. Underground ......................................................95
3.2 Cables...........................................................................................................98
3.2.1 Cable Insulation ..........................................................................99
3.2.2 Conductors.................................................................................104
Copyright © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
3.2.3 Neutral or Shield ......................................................................104
3.2.4 Semiconducting Shields...........................................................106
3.2.5 Jacket ...........................................................................................107
3.3 Installations and Configurations...........................................................108
3.4 Impedances ............................................................................................... 111
3.4.1 Resistance................................................................................... 111
3.4.2 Impedance Formulas................................................................ 114
3.4.3 Impedance Tables......................................................................121
3.4.4 Capacitance................................................................................121
3.5 Ampacity...................................................................................................123
3.6 Fault Withstand Capability ....................................................................136
3.7 Cable Reliability.......................................................................................139
3.7.1 Water Trees.................................................................................139
3.7.2 Other Failure Modes ................................................................142
3.7.3 Failure Statistics ........................................................................144
3.8 Cable Testing ............................................................................................147
3.9 Fault Location...........................................................................................148
References.............................................................................................................153
4
Transformers ................................................................................ 159
4.1 Basics..........................................................................................................159
4.2 Distribution Transformers ......................................................................164
4.3 Single-Phase Transformers .....................................................................166
4.4 Three-Phase Transformers......................................................................174
4.4.1 Grounded Wye – Grounded Wye..........................................179
4.4.2 Delta – Grounded Wye............................................................183
4.4.3 Floating Wye – Delta................................................................183
4.4.4 Other Common Connections ..................................................185
4.4.4.1 Delta – Delta............................................................185
4.4.4.2 Open Wye – Open Delta........................................186
4.4.4.3 Other Suitable Connections ..................................189
4.4.5 Neutral Stability with a Floating Wye ..................................189
4.4.6 Sequence Connections of Three-Phase Transformers.........191
4.5 Loadings ....................................................................................................191
4.6 Losses.........................................................................................................197
4.7 Network Transformers............................................................................201
4.8 Substation Transformers .........................................................................202
4.9 Special Transformers ...............................................................................206
4.9.1 Autotransformers......................................................................206
4.9.2 Grounding Transformers .........................................................207
4.10 Special Problems ......................................................................................210
4.10.1 Paralleling ..................................................................................210
4.10.2 Ferroresonance .......................................................................... 211
4.10.3 Switching Floating Wye – Delta Banks.................................220
4.10.4 Backfeeds....................................................................................223
Copyright © 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
4.10.5 Inrush..........................................................................................226
References.............................................................................................................229
5
Voltage Regulation...................................................................... 233
5.1 Voltage Standards ....................................................................................233
5.2 Voltage Drop.............................................................................................236
5.3 Regulation Techniques ............................................................................238
5.3.1 Voltage Drop Allocation and Primary Voltage Limits........238
5.3.2 Load Flow Models....................................................................240
5.3.3 Voltage Problems ......................................................................242
5.3.4 Voltage Reduction.....................................................................243
5.4 Regulators .................................................................................................245
5.4.1 Line-Drop Compensation........................................................249
5.4.1.1 Load-Center Compensation ..................................250
5.4.1.2 Voltage-Spread Compensation .............................253
5.4.1.3 Effects of Regulator Connections.........................257
5.4.2 Voltage Override.......................................................................258
5.4.3 Regulator Placement ................................................................258
5.4.4 Other Regulator Issues.............................................................259
5.5 Station Regulation....................................................................................260
5.5.1 Parallel Operation.....................................................................261
5.5.2 Bus Regulation Settings...........................................................262
5.6 Line Loss and Voltage Drop Relationships .........................................262
References.............................................................................................................266
6
Capacitor Application ................................................................ 269
6.1 Capacitor Ratings.....................................................................................273
6.2 Released Capacity....................................................................................276
6.3 Voltage Support........................................................................................277
6.4 Reducing Line Losses..............................................................................280
6.4.1 Energy Losses............................................................................283
6.5 Switched Banks ........................................................................................284
6.6 Local Controls...........................................................................................286
6.7 Automated Controls................................................................................288
6.8 Reliability ..................................................................................................290
6.9 Failure Modes and Case Ruptures........................................................291
6.10 Fusing and Protection .............................................................................295
6.11 Grounding.................................................................................................307

 

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