To understand the source of automotive fuels and lubricants, their basic
properties, determination of air requirement for the combustion of fuels and basic
theory of lubrication.
UNIT I MANUFACTURE OF FUELS AND LUBRICANTS 9
Fuels, Structure of petroleum, refining process, thermal and catalytic cracking,products of
refining process, manufacture of lubricating oil base stocks and finished automotive
UNIT II FUELS FOR I.C. ENGINES 9
Types of Fuels, Liquid and gaseous fuels, heating value of fuels, higher and lower
heating values, chemical structure of hydro-carbons SI Engine fuels, Volatility
characteristics, desirable characteristics of SI Engine fuels, knock rating and add itives,
alternate fuels for SI engines. CI engine fuels, desirable characteristics, cetane rating,
alternate fuels for CI engines, biodiesels.
UNIT III COMBUSTION OF FUELS 9
Stoichiometry - calculation of theoretically correct air required for combus tion of liquid
and gaseous fuels, volumetric and gravimetric analysis of the dry products of combustion,
mass of dry gas per kg of fuel burnt, mass of carbon in the exhaust gas, mass of carbon
burnt to carbon-monoxide per kg of fuel, heat loss due to incomplete combustion, exhaust
gas analysis by Orsat apparatus.
UNIT IV THEORY OF LUBRICATION 9
Engine friction: introduction, total engine friction, effect of engine variables on friction,
hydrodynamic lubrication, elasto hydrodynamic lubrication, boundary lubrication,
Hydrostatic lubrication bearing lubrication, functions of the lubrication system.
UNIT V LUBRICANTS 9
Specific requirements for automotive lubricants, oxidation deterioration and
degradation of lubricants, additives and additive mechanism, synthetic lubricants,
classification of lubricating oils, properties of lubricating oils, tests on lubricants. Grease,
classification, properties, testing of grease.