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Fluid Power Engineering complete ebook in pdf format
Neeraj Yadav

Fluid Power Engineering complete ebook in pdf format

Neeraj Yadav | 01-Mar-2016 |
Fluid Power Engineering , Introduction to Hydraulic Power Systems , Hydraulic Oils and Theoretical Background , Hydraulic Transmission Lines , Hydraulic Pumps , Hydraulic Control Valves , Accessories , Hydraulic Actuators , Hydraulic Servo Actuators , Electrohydraulic Servovalve Technology , Modeling and Simulation of Electrohydraulic Servosystems , Introduction to Pneumatic Systems , Fluid Power Engineering , Introduction to Hydraulic Power Systems , Hydraulic Oils and Theoretical Background , Hydraulic Transmission Lines , Hydraulic Pumps , Hydraulic Control Valves , Accessories , Hydraulic Actuators , Hydraulic Servo Actuators , Electrohydraulic Servovalve Technology , Modeling and Simulation of Electrohydraulic Servosystems , Introduction to Pneumatic Systems ,

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Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
1 Introduction to Hydraulic Power Systems . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 The Classifi cation of Power Systems . . . . . . . 2
1.2.1 Mechanical Power Systems . . . . . . . 2
1.2.2 Electrical Power Systems . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.3 Pneumatic Power Systems . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.4 Hydrodynamic Power Systems . . . . 5
1.2.5 Hydrostatic Power Systems . . . . . . . 6
1.3 Basic Hydraulic Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 The Advantages and Disadvantages of
Hydraulic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Comparing Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Hydraulic Oils and Theoretical Background . . . . . 15
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2 Basic Properties of Hydraulic Oils . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.1 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.2 Oil Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.2.3 Oil Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2.4 Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.2.5 Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.2.6 Lubrication and Anti-Wear
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.7 Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.8 Chemical Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.9 Oxidation Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.10 Foaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.11 Cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.2.12 Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.13 Acidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.14 Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.15 Environmentally Acceptable
Hydraulic Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.3 Classifi cation of Hydraulic Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.3.1 Typically Used Hydraulic Fluids . . . 46
2.3.2 Mineral Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.3.3 Fire-Resistant Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.4 Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.5 Requirements Imposed on the Hydraulic
Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Appendix 2A Transfer Functions . . . . . . . . . 54
Appendix 2B Laminar Flow in Pipes . . . . . . 55
3 Hydraulic Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.2 Hydraulic Tubing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3 Hoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4 Pressure and Power Losses
in Hydraulic Conduits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.1 Minor Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.2 Friction Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
3.5 Modeling of Hydraulic Transmission Lines . . 72
3.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Appendix 3A The Laplace Transform . . . . . 77
The Direct Laplace Transform . . . . . 77
The Inverse Laplace Transform . . . . 77
Properties of the Laplace Transform . . . 77
Laplace Transform Tables . . . . . . . . . 78
Appendix 3B Modeling and Simulation of
Hydraulic Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
The Single-Lump Model . . . . . . . . . . 79
The Two-Lump Model . . . . . . . . . . . 80
The Three-Lump Model . . . . . . . . . . 81
The Four-Lump Model . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Higher-Order Models . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4 Hydraulic Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.2 Ideal Pump Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.3 Real Pump Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.4 Cavitation in Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . 97
x Con t e n t s
C o n t e n t s xi
4.5 Pulsation of Flow of Displacement
Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
4.6 Classifi cation of Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.6.1 Bent Axis Axial Piston Pumps . . . . . 100
4.6.2 Swash Plate Pumps with
Axial Pistons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.6.3 Swash Plate Pumps with
Inclined Pistons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
4.6.4 Axial Piston Pumps with Rotating
Swash Plate-Wobble Plate . . . . . . . . 106
4.6.5 Radial Piston Pumps with Eccentric
Cam Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
4.6.6 Radial Piston Pumps with
Eccentric Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.6.7 Radial Piston Pumps
of Crank Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.6.8 External Gear Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
4.6.9 Internal Gear Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.6.10 Gerotor Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.6.11 Screw Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.6.12 Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.7 Variable Displacement Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.7.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.7.2 Pressure-Compensated
Vane Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.7.3 Bent Axis Axial Piston Pumps with
Power Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.8 Rotodynamic Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.9 Pump Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.10 Pump Specifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.11 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.12 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
5 Hydraulic Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
5.2 Pressure-Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
5.2.1 Direct-Operated Relief Valves . . . . . 141
5.2.2 Pilot-Operated Relief Valves . . . . . . 144
5.2.3 Pressure-Reducing Valves . . . . . . . . 147
5.2.4 Sequence Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
5.2.5 Accumulator Charging Valve . . . . . 155
5.3 Directional Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.3.2 Poppet-Type DCVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.3.3 Spool-Type DCVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.3.4 Control of the Directional
Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.3.5 Flow Characteristics
of Spool Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
5.3.6 Pressure and Power Losses in the
Spool Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
5.3.7 Flow Forces Acting on the Spool . . . 170
5.3.8 Direct-Operated Directional
Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5.3.9 Pilot-Operated Directional
Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.4 Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.4.1 Spring-Loaded Direct-Operated
Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.4.2 Direct-Operated Check Valves
Without Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
5.4.3 Pilot-Operated Check Valves
Without External Drain Ports . . . . . 176
5.4.4 Pilot-Operated Check Valves with
External Drain Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.4.5 Double Pilot-Operated
Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.4.6 Mechanically Piloted Pilot-Operated
Check Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.5 Flow Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
5.5.1 Throttle Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.5.2 Sharp-Edged Throttle Valves . . . . . . 180
5.5.3 Series Pressure-Compensated Flow
Control Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.5.4 Parallel Pressure-Compensated Flow
Control Valves—Three-Way FCVs . . . 184
5.5.5 Flow Dividers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Appendix 5A Control Valve Pressures and
Throttle Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Conical Poppet Valves . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Cylindrical Poppets with
Conical Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Spherical Poppet Valves . . . . . . . . . . 193
Circular Throttling Area . . . . . . . . . . 196
Triangular Throttling Area . . . . . . . . 197
Appendix 5B Modeling and Simulation of a
Direct-Operated Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
xii Con t e n t s
C o n t e n t s xiii
Construction and Operation
of the Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Mathematical Modeling . . . . . . . . . . 199
Computer Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Static Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Transient Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.2 Hydraulic Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.2.1 Classifi cation and Operation . . . . . . 208
6.2.2 The Volumetric Capacity
of Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.2.3 The Construction and Operation
of Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
6.2.4 Applications of Hydraulic
Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Emergency Sources of Energy . . . 219
Compensation for Large
Flow Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Pump Unloading . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Reducing the Actuator’s
Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Maintaining Constant
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Thermal Compensation . . . . . . 226
Smoothing of Pressure
Pulsations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Load Suspension on Load
Transporting Vehicles . . . . . . . . 231
Absorption of Hydraulic
Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Hydraulic Springs . . . . . . . . . . . 235
6.3 Hydraulic Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
6.4 Hydraulic Pressure Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
6.4.1 Piston-Type Pressure Switches . . . . 238
6.4.2 Bourdon Tube Pressure Switches . . . 239
6.4.3 Pressure Gauge Isolators . . . . . . . . . 240
6.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
6.6 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Appendix 6A Smoothing Pressure
Pulsations by Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Appendix 6B Absorption of Hydraulic
Shocks by Accumulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Nomenclature and Abbreviations . . . 249
7 Hydraulic Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.2 Hydraulic Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.2.1 The Construction of Hydraulic
Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
7.2.2 Cylinder Cushioning . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
7.2.3 Stop Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
7.2.4 Cylinder Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
7.2.5 Hydraulic Cylinder Stroke
Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.2.6 Classifi cations of Hydraulic
Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.2.7 Cylinder Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
7.2.8 Cylinder Calibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
7.3 Hydraulic Rotary Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.3.1 Rotary Actuator with Rack and
Pinion Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.3.2 Parallel Piston Rotary Actuator . . . . 264
7.3.3 Vane-Type Rotary Actuators . . . . . . 265
7.4 Hydraulic Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.4.2 Bent-Axis Axial Piston Motors . . . . 266
7.4.3 Swash Plate Axial Piston Motors . . . 267
7.4.4 Vane Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
7.4.5 Gear Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
7.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
7.6 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Appendix 7A Case Studies:
Hydraulic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
8 Hydraulic Servo Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
8.1 Construction and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
8.2 Applications of Hydraulic Servo Actuators . . . 283
8.2.1 The Steering Systems of Mobile
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
8.2.2 Applications in Machine Tools . . . . 284
8.2.3 Applications in Displacement
Pump Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
8.3 The Mathematical Model of HSA . . . . . . . . . . 286
8.4 The Transfer Function of HSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
8.4.1 Deduction of the HSA Transfer Function,
Based on the Step Response . . . . . . 289
xiv Con t e n t s
C o n t e n t s xv
8.4.2 Deducing the HSA Transfer
Function Analytically . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
8.5 Valve-Controlled Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
8.5.1 Flow Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
8.5.2 Power Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
8.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
8.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Appendix 8A Modeling and Simulation
of a Hydraulic Servo Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
A Mathematical Model
of the HSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Simulation of the HSA . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
9 Electrohydraulic Servovalve Technology . . . . . . . . 305
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
9.2 Applications of Electrohydraulic Servos . . . . 306
9.3 Electromagnetic Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
9.4 Servovalves Incorporating Flapper
Valve Amplifi ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
9.4.1 Single-Stage Servovalves . . . . . . . . . 311
9.4.2 Two-Stage Electrohydraulic
Servovalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
9.5 Servovalves Incorporating Jet
Pipe Amplifi ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
9.6 Servovalves Incorporating Jet
Defl ector Amplifi ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
9.7 Jet Pipe Amplifi ers Versus Nozzle
Flapper Amplifi ers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
9.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
10 Modeling and Simulation of Electrohydraulic
Servosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
10.2 Electromagnetic Torque Motors . . . . . . . . . . . 333
10.2.1 Introducing Magnetic Circuits . . . . . 333
10.2.2 Magnetic Circuit of an Electromagnetic
Torque Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
10.2.3 Analysis of Torque Motors . . . . . . . . 337
10.3 Flapper Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
10.4 Modeling of an Electrohydraulic
Servo Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
10.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
10.6 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Appendix 10A Modeling and Simulation
of an EHSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
xvi Con t e n t s
Numerical Values of the Studied
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Torque Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Single-Stage Electrohydraulic
Servovalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Two-Stage Electrohydraulic
Servovalves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Electrohydraulic Servo
Actuators (EHSAs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Appendix 10B Design of P, PI, and
PID Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
11 Introduction to Pneumatic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
11.2 Peculiarities of Pneumatic Systems . . . . . . . . . 367
11.2.1 Effects of Air Compressibility . . . . . 367
11.2.2 The Effect of Air Density . . . . . . . . . . 372
11.2.3 The Effect of Air Viscosity . . . . . . . . . 372
11.2.4 Other Peculiarities of Pneumatic
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
11.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of
Pneumatic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
11.3.1 Basic Advantages of Pneumatic
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
11.3.2 Basic Disadvantages of Pneumatic
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
11.4 Basic Elements of Pneumatic Systems . . . . . . 374
11.4.1 Basic Pneumatic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . 374
11.4.2 Air Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
11.4.3 Pneumatic Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
11.4.4 Air Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
11.4.5 Air Lubricators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
11.4.6 Pneumatic Control Valves . . . . . . . . 379
11.5 Case Studies: Basic Pneumatic Circuits . . . . . 385
11.5.1 Manual Control of a Single-
Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
11.5.2 Unidirectional Speed Control
of a Single-Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . 385
11.5.3 Bidirectional Speed Control
of a Single-Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . 385
11.5.4 OR Control of a Single-Acting
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
11.5.5 AND Control of a Single-Acting
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
C o n t e n t s xvii
11.5.6 AND Control of Single-Acting
Cylinders; Logic AND Control . . . . 387
11.5.7 Logic NOT Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
11.5.8 Logic MEMORY Control . . . . . . . . . . 388
11.5.9 Bidirectional Speed Control of a
Double-Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . 388
11.5.10 Unidirectional and Quick Return
Control of a Double-Acting
Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
11.5.11 Dual Pressure Control of a Double-
Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
11.5.12 Semi-Automatic Control . . . . . . . . . . 392
11.5.13 Fully Automatic Control of a
Double-Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . 392
11.5.14 Timed Control of a Double-
Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
11.5.15 Basic Positional Control of a
Double-Acting Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . 392
11.5.16 Electro-Pneumatic Logic AND . . . . . 396
11.5.17 Electro-Pneumatic Logic OR . . . . . . 396
11.5.18 Electro-Pneumatic Logic MEMORY . . . 397
11.5.19 Electro-Pneumatic Logic NOT . . . . . 398
11.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
11.7 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
 

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