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MECHANICAL METALLURGY SI Metric Edition by George E. Dieter
Neeraj Yadav

MECHANICAL METALLURGY SI Metric Edition by George E. Dieter

Neeraj Yadav | 01-Mar-2016 |
Stress and Strain Relationships for Elastic Behavior , Elements of the Theory of Plasticity , Plastic Deformation of Single Crystals , Strengthening Mechanisms , The Tension Test , The Hardness Test , The Torsion Test , Fracture Mechanics , Creep and Stress Rupture , Fatigue of Metals , Brittle Fracture and Impact Testing , Plastic Forming of Metals , Forging , Rolling of Metals , Extrusion , Drawing of Rods , Wires , Tubes , Sheet-Metal Forming , Machining of Metals ,

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1 Introduction 3
't...._•. _,,_._,. A~~'-"~-'
1)' Scope of This Book l1.:ljStrength of Mate£ial,s-Basic
Assumptions :vr; Elastic and Plastic Behavior LJ::4JAverage
Stress and Strain rrS Tensile Deformation of Ductile Metal , .,,---.-- ~".,.- --. ",,' -- " .-' ." ," - -, -,,- ,-'
/1-6 Ductile vs. Brittle Behavior "1-7 What Constitutes Failure? ; . ._,----~- c··-· ..0 I i
)-8 Concept of Stress and the Types of Stresses Lk9jConcept of
Strain and the Types of Strain 'Ji~i61Units of Stress and Other
L.v.' ,. ,.,-
Quantities
2 Stress and Strain Relationships for Elastic Behavior 17
, . _. --'<.~....,. -'...•-. - ,
2-1 Introduction " 2-2 \Description of Stress '!La)?oint i 2-3 IState
of Stress in Two Dimensions (Plane Stress), f:4iMohr's"Clfcle of
Stress-Two Dimensions ..t:r5~ State of Stress in Three Dimensions
:1;6JStress Tensor t 1=71 Mohr's' Circle-Ihree Dimensions
p::I1Description of Strain at a Point ~.• 2=9~ohr's Circle of Strain
~~lO~ Hydr,ostatic and I?eviator. Co~ponents of Str~ss
12-U '.Elastic Stress-Stram RelatlOns i 2eU CalculatlOn of Stresses
from Elastic Strains.[l~ Strain Energy' .~=i4J ~nisotropy of
Elastic Behavior 2=15" Stress Concentration 2-16 Finite Element
Method
••
VII
•••
Vlll CONTENTS
3 Elements of the Theory of Plasticity 69
----"1 ~.------~ : - ..- --~{
[illIntr,()du~tion LUJThe Flow Curve J.--:1JTrue Strfss and True
Strain 3-4(Yielding Criteria for Ductile Metals .J.~5Combined
-_.-_.. -...-" ~'---'"'-'-'.---'~'. . ..-"'-'. "'-, . '--. . .
Stress Tests i 3-6tThe YIeld Locus' 3-7'Anisotropy m YIeldmg
C3:8Yield Su'a~~eand.Normality'3~Octahedral Shear Stress
and Shear Strain ~Invariants ofS!!::ss and Strain
{3:rD Plastic Stress-Strain Relations r3-1~ Two-Dimensional Plastic
,-=-.~.~ :.--- , '.
Flow-Slip-Line Field Theory'
Part 2 Metallurgical Fundamentals
4 Plastic Deformation of Single Crystals
4-1 Introduction 4-2 Concepts of Crystal Geometry 4-3 Lattice
Defects 4-4 Deformation by Slip 4-5 Slip in a Perfect Lattice
4-6 Slip by Dislocation Movement 4-7 Critical Resolved
Shear Stress for Slip 4-8 Deformation of Single Crystals
4-9 Deformation of Face-Centered Cubic Crystals
4-10 Deformation by Twinning 4-11 Stacking Faults
4-12 Deformation Bands and Kink Bands 4-13 Microstrain
Behavior 4-14 Strain Hardening of Single Crystals
5 Dislocation Theory
5-1 Introduction 5-2 Observation of Dislocations 5-3 Burgers
Vector and the Dislocation Loop 5-4 Dislocations in the
Face-Centered Cubic Lattice 5-5 Dislocations in the Hexagonal
Close-Packed Lattice 5-6 Dislocations in the Body-Centered
Cubic Lattice 5-7 Stress Fields and Energies of Dislocations
5-8 Forces on Dislocations 5-9 Forces between Dislocations
5-10 Dislocation Climb 5-11 Intersection of Dislocations
5-12 Jogs 5-13 Dislocation Sources 5-14 Multiplication of
Dislocations 5-15 Dislocation-Point Defect Interactions
5-16 Dislocation Pile-Ups
6 Strengthening Mechanisms
6-1 Introduction 6-2 Grain Boundaries and Deformation
6-3 Strengthening from Grain Boundaries 6-4 Low-Angle Grain
Boundaries 6-5 Yield-Point Phenomenon 6-6 Strain Aging
6-7 Solid-Solution Strengthening 6-8 Deformation of Two-Phase
Aggregates 6-9 Strengthening from Fine Particles 6-10 Fiber
Strengthening 6-11 Strengthening Due to Point Defects
6-12 Martensite Strengthening 6-13 Cold-Worked Structure
6-14 Strain Hardening 6-15 Annealing of Cold-Worked Metal
6-16 Bauschinger Effect 6-17 Preferred Orientation (Texture)
103
145
184
7 Fracture
• CONTENTS IX
241
7-1 Introduction 7-2 Types of Fracture in Metals
7-3 Theoretical Cohesive Strength of Metals 7-4 Griffith Theory
of Brittle Fracture 7-5 Fracture of Single Crystals
7-6 Metallographic Aspects of Fracture 7-7 Fractography
7-8 Dislocation Theories of Brittle Fracture 7-9 Ductile Fracture
7-10 Notch Effects 7-11 Concept of the Fracture Curve
7-12 Fracture under Combined Stresses 7-13 Effect of High
Hydrostatic Pressure on Fracture
Part 3 Applications to Materials Testing
8 The Tension Test
8-1 Engineering Stress-Strain Curve 8-2 True-Stress-True-Strain
Curve 8-3 Instability in Tension 8-4 Stress Distribution at the
Neck 8-5 Ductility Measurement in Tension Test 8-6 Effect
of Strain Rate on Flow Properties 8-7 Effect of Temperature on
Flow Properties 8-8 Influence of Testing Machine on Flow
Properties 8-9 Constitutive Equations 8-10 Further
Consideration of Instability 8-11 Stress Relaxation Testing
8-12 Thermally Activated Deformation 8-13 Notch Tensile Test
8-14 Tensile Properties of Steel 8-15 Anisotropy of Tensile
Properties
9 The Hardness Test
9-1 Introduction 9-2 Brinell Hardness 9-3 Meyer Hardness
9-4 Analysis of Indentation by an Indenter 9-5 Relationship
between Hardness and the Flow Curve 9-6 Vickers Hardness
9-7 Rockwell Hardness Test 9-8 Microhardness Tests
9-9 Hardness-Conversion Relationships 9-10 Hardness at
Elevated Temperatures
10 The Torsion Test
10-1 Introduction 10-2 Mechanical Properties in Torsion
10-3 Torsional Stresses for Large Plastic Strains 10-4 Types of
Torsion Failures 10-5 Torsion Test vs. Tension Test 10-6 Hot
Torsion Testing
11 Fracture Mechanics
11-1 Introduction 11-2 Strain-Energy Release Rate 11-3 Stress
Intensity Factor 11-4 Fracture Toughness and Design
11-5 K!c Plane-Strain Toughness Testing 11-6 Plasticity
Corrections 11-7 Crack Opening Displacement 11-8 J Integral
11-9 R Curve 11-10 Probabilistic Aspects of Fracture Mechanics
11-11 Toughness of Materials
275
325
338
348
X CONTENTS
12 Fatigue of Metals
12-1 Introduction 12-2 Stress Cycles 12-3 The S-N Curve
12-4 Statistical Nature of Fatigue 12-5 Effect of Mean Stress on
Fatigue 12-6 Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve 12-7 Low-Cycle Fatigue
12-8 Strain-Life Equation 12-9 Structural Features of Fatigue
12-10 Fatigue Crack Propagation 12-11 Effect of Stress
Concentration on Fatigue 12-12 Size Effect 12-13 Surface
Effects and Fatigue 12-14 Fatigue under Combined Stresses
12-15 Cumulative Fatigue Damage and Sequence Effects
12-16 Effect of Metallurgical Variables and Fatigue 12-17 Design
for Fatigue 12-18 Machine Design Approach-Infinite-Life
Design 12-19 Local Strain Approach 12-20 Corrosion Fatigue
12-21 Effect of Temperature on Fatigue
13 Creep and Stress Rupture
13-1 The High-Temperature Materials Problem 13-2 TimeDependent
Mechanical Behavior 13-3 The Creep Curve
13-4 The Stress-Rupture Test 13-5 Structural Changes During
Creep 13-6 Mechanisms of Creep Deformation 13-7
Deformation Mechanism Maps 13-8 Activation Energy for
Steady-State Creep 13-9 Superplasticity 13-10 Fracture at
Elevated Temperature 13-11 High-Temperature Alloys
13-12 Presentation of Engineering Creep Data 13-13 Prediction
of Long-Time Properties 13-14 Creep Under Combined Stresses
13-15 Creep-Fatigue Interaction
14 Brittle Fracture and Impact Testing
14-1 The Brittle-Fracture Problem 14-2 Notched-Bar Impact
Tests 14-3 Instrumented Charpy Test 14-4 Significance of
Transition-Temperature Curve 14-5 Metallurgical Factors
Affecting Transition Temperature 14-6 Drop-Weight Test and
Other Large-Scale Tests 14-7 Fracture Analysis Diagram
14-8 Temper Embrittlement 14-9 Environment Sensitive Fracture
14-10 Flow and Fracture under Very Rapid Rates of Loading
Part 4 Plastic Forming of Metals
15 Fundamentals of Metalworking
15-1 Classification of Forming Processes 15-2 Mechanics of
Metalworking 15-3 Flow-Stress Determination
15-4 Temperature in Metalworking 15-5 Strain-Rate Effects
15-6 Metallurgical Structure 15-7 Friction and Lubrication
15-8 Deformation-Zone Geometry 15-9 Hydrostatic Pressure
15-10 Workability 15-11 Residual Stresses 15-12 Experimental
Techniques for Metalworking Processes 15-13 Computer-Aided
Manufacturing
375
432
471
503
• CONTENTS Xl
16 Forging 564
16-1 Classification of Forging Processes 16-2 Forging Equipment
16-3 Forging in Plane Strain 16-4 Open-Die Forging
16-5 Closed-Die Forging 16-6 Calculation of Forging
Loads in Closed-Die Forging 16-7 Forging Defects
16-8 Powder Metallurgy Forging 16-9 Residual Stresses in
Forgings
17 Rolling of Metals 586
17-1 Classification of Rolling Processes 17-2 Rolling Mills
17-3 Hot-Rolling 17-4 Cold-Rolling 17-5 Rolling of Bars and
Shapes 17-6 Forces and Geometrical Relationships in Rolling
17-7 Simplified Analysis of Rolling Load: Rolling Variables
17-8 Problems and Defects in Rolled Products 17-9 Rolling-Mill
Control 17-10 Theories of Cold-Rolling 17-11 Theories of
Hot-Rolling 17-12 Torque and Power
18 Extrusion
18-1 Classification of Extrusion Processes 18-2 Extrusion
Equipment 18-3 Hot Extrusion 18-4 Deformation, Lubrication,
and Defects in Extrusion 18-5 Analysis of the Extrusion Process
8-6 Cold Extrusion and Cold-Forming 18-7 Hydrostatic Extrusion
18-8 Extrusion of Tubing 18-9 Production of Seamless Pipe and
Tubing
19 Drawing of Rods, Wires, and Tubes
19-1 Introduction 19-2 Rod and Wiredrawing 19-3 Analysis
of Wiredrawing 19-4 Tube-Drawing Processes 19-5 Analysis
of Tube Drawing 19-6 Residual Stresses in Rod, Wire, and Tubes
20 Sheet-Metal Forming
20-1 Introduction 20-2 Forming Methods 20-3 Shearing and
Blanking 20-4 Bending 20-5 Stretch Forming 20-6 Deep
Drawing 20-7 Forming Limit Criteria 20-8 Defects in Formed
Parts
21 Machining of Metals
21-1 Types of Machining Operations 21-2 Mechanics of
Machining 21-3 Three-Dimensional Machining
21-4 Temperature in Metal Cutting 21-5 Cutting Fluids
21-6 Tool Materials and Tool Life 21-7 Grinding Processes
21-8 Nontraditional Machining Processes 21-9 Economics of
Machining

 

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