# Elements Of Electromagnetics by Sadiku - 3rd edition

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PART 1 : VECTOR ANALYSIS
1 Vector Algebra 3
1.1 Introduction 3
11.2 A Preview of the Book 4
1.3 Scalars and Vectors 4
1.4 Unit Vector 5
115 Vector Addition and Subtraction 6
1.6 Position and Distance Vectors 7
1.7 Vector Multiplication 11
1.8 Components of a Vector 16
Summary 22
Review Questions 23
Problems 25
2 Coordinate Systems and Transformation 28
2.1 Introduction 28
2.2 Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z) 29
2.3 Circular Cylindrical Coordinates (p, <f>, z)
2.4 Spherical Coordinates (r, d, z) 32
f2.5 Constant-Coordinate Surfaces 41
Summary 46
Review Questions 47
Problems 49
29
VII
Contents
3 Vector Calculus 53
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 Differential Length, Area, and Volume 53
3.3 Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals 60
3.4 Del Operator 63
3.5 Gradient of a Scalar 65
3.6 Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem 69
3.7 Curl of a Vector and Stokes's Theorem 75
3.8 Laplacian of a Scalar 83
t3.9 Classification of Vector Fields 86
Summary 89
Review Questions 90
Problems 93
PART 2: ELECTROSTATICS
4 Electrostatic Fields 103
4.1 Introduction 103
4.2 Coulomb's Law and Field Intensity 104
4.3 Electric Fields due to Continuous Charge Distributions 111
4.4 Electric Flux Density 122
4.5 Gauss's Law—Maxwell's Equation 124
4.6 Applications of Gauss's Law 126
4.7 Electric Potential 133
4.8 Relationship between E and V—Maxwell's Equation 139
4.9 An Electric Dipole and Flux Lines 142
4.10 Energy Density in Electrostatic Fields 146
Summary 150
Review Questions 153
Problems 155
5 Electric Fields in Material Space 161
5.1 Introduction 161
5.2 Properties of Materials 161
5.3 Convection and Conduction Currents 162
5.4 Conductors 165
5.5 Polarization in Dielectrics 171
5.6 Dielectric Constant and Strength 774
f 5.7 Linear, Isotropic, and Homogeneous Dielectrics 175
5.8 Continuity Equation and Relaxation Time 180
CONTENTS IX
5.9 Boundary Conditions 182
Summary 191
Review Questions 192
Problems 194
6 Electrostatic Boundary-Value Problems 199
6.1 Introduction 199
6.2 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 199
f 6.3 Uniqueness Theorem 201
6.4 General Procedure for Solving Poisson's or Laplace's
Equation 202
6.5 Resistance and Capacitance 223
6.6 Method of Images 240
Summary 246
Review Questions 247
Problems 249
PART 3: MAGNETOSTATICS
7 Magnetostatic Fields 261
7.1 Introduction 261
7.2 Biot-Savart's Law 263
7.3 Ampere's Circuit Law—Maxwell's Equation 273
7.4 Applications of Ampere's Law 274
7.5 Magnetic Flux Density—Maxwell's Equation 281
7.6 Maxwell's Equations for Static EM Fields 283
7.7 Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials 284
f 7.8 Derivation of Biot-Savart's Law and Ampere's Law 290
Summary 292
Review Questions 293
Problems 296
8 Magnetic Forces, Materials, and Devices 304
8.1 Introduction 304
8.2 Forces due to Magnetic Fields 304
8.3 Magnetic Torque and Moment 316
8.4 A Magnetic Dipole 318
8.5 Magnetization in Materials 323
f 8.6 Classification of Magnetic Materials 327
8.7 Magnetic Boundary Conditions 330
8.8 Inductors and Inductances 336
Contents
8.9 Magnetic Energy 339
f8.10 Magnetic Circuits 347
18.11 Force on Magnetic Materials
Summary 354
Review Questions 356
Problems 358
349
PART 4: WAVES AND APPLICATIONS
9 Maxwell's Equations 369
9.1 Introduction 369
9.3 Transformer and Motional EMFs 372
9.4 Displacement Current 381
9.5 Maxwell's Equations in Final Forms 384
t9.6 Time-Varying Potentials 387
9.7 Time-Harmonic Fields 389
Summary 400
Review Questions 407
Problems 404
10 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 410
10.1 Introduction 410
tl0.2 Waves in General 411
10.3 Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics 417
10.4 Plane Waves in Lossless Dielectrics 423
10.5 Plane Waves in Free Space 423
10.6 Plane Waves in Good Conductors 425
10.7 Power and the Poynting Vector 435
10.8 Reflection of a Plane Wave at Normal Incidence 440
f 10.9 Reflection of a Plane Wave at Oblique Incidence 451
Summary 462
Review Questions 464
Problems 466
11 Transmission Lines 473
11.1 Introduction 473
11.2 Transmission Line Parameters 474
11.3 Transmission Line Equations 477
11.4 Input Impedance, SWR, and Power 484
11.5 The Smith Chart 492
CONTENTS XI
11.6 Some Applications of Transmission Lines 505
f 11.7 Transients on Transmission Lines 512
111.8 Microstrip Transmission Lines 524
Summary 528
Review Questions 530
Problems 533
12 Waveguides 542
12.1 Introduction 542
12.2 Rectangular Waveguides 543
12.3 Transverse Magnetic (TM) Modes 547
12A Transverse Electric (TE) Modes 552
12.5 Wave Propagation in the Guide 563
12.6 Power Transmission and Attenuation 565
tl2.7 Waveguide Current and Mode Excitation 569
12.8 Waveguide Resonators 575
Summary 581
Review Questions 582
Problems 583
13 Antennas 588
13.1 Introduction 588
13.2 Hertzian Dipole 590
13.3 Half-Wave Dipole Antenna 594
13.4 Quarter-Wave Monopole Antenna 598
13.5 Small Loop Antenna 599
13.6 Antenna Characteristics 604
13.7 Antenna Arrays 612
113.8 Effective Area and the Friis Equation 62 /
Summary 629
Review Questions 630
Problems 632
14 Modern Topics 638
14.1 Introduction 638
14.2 Microwaves 638
14.3 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility
14.4 Optical Fiber 649
Summary 656
Review Questions 656
Problems 658
15 Numerical Methods 660
Introduction 660
Field Plotting 667
The Finite Difference Method 669
The Moment Method 683
The Finite Element Method 694
Summary 713
Review Question