PART - A
UNIT - 1
Switches and fuses: Introduction, energy management of power system, definition of switchgear,
Switches - isolating, load breaking and earthing. Introduction to fuse, fuse law, cut -off characteristics. Time current characteristics, fuse material, HRC fuse, liquid fuse, Application of fuse
UNIT - 2
Principles of circuit breakers: Introduction, requirement of a circuit breakers, difference between an isolator and circuit breaker, basic principle of operation of a circuit breaker, phenomena of arc, properties of arc, initiation and maintenance of arc, arc interruption theories - slepian’s theory and energy balance theory, Re striking voltage, recovery voltage, Rate of rise of Re striking voltage, DC circuit breaking, AC circuit breaking, current chopping, capacitance switching, resistance switching, Rating of Circuit breakers.
UNIT - 3 & 4 Circuits Breakers:
Air Circuit breakers – Air break and Air blast Circuit breakers, oil Circuit breakers - Single break, double break, minimum OCB, SF6 breaker - Preparation of SF6 gas, Puffer and non Puffer type of SF6 breakers. Vacuum circuit breakers - principle of operation and constructional details.
Advantages and disadvantages of different types of Circuit breakers, Testing of Circuit breakers, Unit testing, synthetic testing, substitution test, compensation test and capacitance test.
Lightning arresters: Causes of over voltages – internal and external, lightning, working Principle of different types of lightning arresters. Shield wires.
PART - B
UNIT - 5
Protective Relaying: Requirement of Protective Relaying, Zones of protection, primary and backup protection, Essential qualities of Protective Relaying, Classification of Protective Relays
UNIT - 6
Induction type relay: Non-directional and directional over current relays, IDMT and Directional characteristics. Differential relay – Principle of operation, percentage differential relay, bias characteristics, and distance relay – Three stepped distance protection, Impedance relay, Reactance relay, Mho relay, Buchholz relay, Negative Sequence relay, Microprocessor based over current relay – block diagram approach.
UNIT - 7 & 8 Protection Schemes: Generator Protection - Merz price protection, prime mover faults, stator and rotor faults, protection against abnormal conditions – unbalanced loading, loss of excitation, over speeding.
Transformer Protection - Differential protection, differential relay with harmonic restraint, Inter turn faults
Induction motor protection - protection against electrical faults such as phase fault, ground fault, and abnormal operating conditions such as single phasing, phase reversal, over load.