Basic Structure of Computers: Computer Types, Functional Units, Basic Operational Concepts, Bus Structures, Performance – Processor Clock, Basic Performance Equation, Clock Rate, Performance Measurement, Historical Perspective.
Machine Instructions and Programs: Numbers, Arithmetic Operations and Characters, Memory Location and Addresses, Memory Operations, Instructions and Instruction Sequencing.
UNIT - 2
Machine Instructions and Programs contd.: Addressing Modes, Assembly Language, Basic Input and Output Operations, Stacks and Queues, Subroutines, Additional Instructions, Encoding of Machine Instructions
UNIT - 3
Input/output Organization: Accessing I/O Devices, Interrupts – Interrupt Hardware, Enabling and Disabling Interrupts, Handling Multiple Devices, Controlling Device Requests, Exceptions, Direct Memory Access, Buses
UNIT - 5
Memory System: Basic Concepts, Semiconductor RAM Memories, Read Only Memories, Speed, Size, and Cost, Cache Memories – Mapping Functions, Replacement Algorithms, Performance Considerations, Virtual Memories, Secondary Storage
UNIT - 6
Arithmetic: Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers, Design of Fast Adders, Multiplication of Positive Numbers, Signed Operand Multiplication, Fast Multiplication, Integer Division, Floating-point Numbers and Operations
UNIT - 7
Basic Processing Unit: Some Fundamental Concepts, Execution of a Complete Instruction, Multiple Bus Organization, Hard-wired Control, Microprogrammed Control
UNIT - 8
Multicores, Multiprocessors, and Clusters: Performance, The Power Wall, The Switch from Uniprocessors to Multiprocessors, Amdahl’s Law, Shared Memory Multiprocessors, Clusters and other Message Passing Multiprocessors, Hardware Multithreading, SISD, IMD, SIMD, SPMD, and Vector.