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Frequently Asked Questions on International Law Aspects of Countering Terrorism
Ravi Chopra

Frequently Asked Questions on International Law Aspects of Countering Terrorism

Ravi Chopra | 23-Jun-2016 |
Frequently Asked Questions on International Law Aspects of Countering Terrorism , Selected issues related to international law , International criminal law including international cooperation in criminal matters , International law on the use of force , International humanitarian law , International refugee law , International human rights and counter-terrorism ,

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Contents


Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Introduction: how do different bodies of international law relate to terrorism?. . . . . . . . . . 1
1. Selected issues related to international law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Why is international law important in counter-terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1 Sources of international law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Where does international law come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.1 What are the key elements of the law of Treaties? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.2 What is customary international law?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1.3 What are the general principles of law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.1.4 Subsidiary sources of law—where else can international law be found?. . 11
1.1.5 What is meant by soft law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.1.6 What are the legal effects of Security Council resolutions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2 The United Nations and counter-terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.1 What are the key United Nations institutions active in the fi eld
of counter-terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.2 What are the key elements of the United Nations legal framework
in the fi eld of counter-terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.3 Regional and subregional responses to terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2. International criminal law, including international cooperation in criminal matters 37
2.1 Prosecution of delicta juris gentium and terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.1.1 Who can be prosecuted for delicta juris gentium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.1.2 Where can delicta juris gentium be prosecuted? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.1.3 Is there a sui generis crime of “terrorism” in international
criminal law?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.1.4 Can terrorist acts fall within the categories of “war crimes,”
“crimes against humanity” or “genocide”? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
vi
2.2 International cooperation in criminal matters and terrorism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.1 Jurisdiction: What bases can national courts use to establish
jurisdiction over crimes of international concern? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2.2 Extradition: What is extradition and how is it dealt with
under international law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.3 What is mutual legal assistance and how is it dealt with
under international law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3. International law on the use of force (jus ad bellum)
and international humanitarian law (jus in bello) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.1 Law on the use of force (jus ad bellum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.1.1 Can terrorism justify the use of force? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.2 International humanitarian law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.1 What principles of international humanitarian law are relevant
in relation to countering terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.2.2 Where does international humanitarian law come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3.2.3 Who monitors international humanitarian law? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.2.4 When and where does international humanitarian law apply?. . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.2.5 What is allowed under the laws of war?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.2.6 What are the minimum guarantees set out under international
humanitarian law?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.2.7 How does international humanitarian law refer to terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4. International refugee law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.1 Where is international refugee law found and what aspects of
international refugee law are relevant to counter-terrorism? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2 How does the United Nations deal with refugees? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.3 Who is a refugee? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.4 What does it mean to be a refugee? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.5 Who is excluded from the protection of the Refugee Convention?
Are terrorists excluded? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.6 Can a refugee be expelled or returned? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.7 How may counter-terrorism policies adversely affect refugees and
asylum seekers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
vii
5. International human rights and counter-terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.1 Sources of international human rights law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.1.1 Where does international human rights law come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.1.2 What rights are protected? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.2 Enforcement of human rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
5.2.1 What institutional frameworks exist at the international and
regional levels for the promotion and protection of human rights?. . . . . . 86
5.2.2 How does international human rights law protection work? . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.3 Counter-terrorism and its possible impact on human rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.3.1 What are the possible impacts of counter-terrorism on human rights? . . 95
6. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

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