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LEGAL AND PROTECTION POLICY RESEARCH SERIES ebook pdf download
Ravi Chopra

LEGAL AND PROTECTION POLICY RESEARCH SERIES ebook pdf download

Ravi Chopra | 23-Jun-2016 |
LEGAL AND PROTECTION POLICY RESEARCH SERIES , Introduction , THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK , ALTERNATIVES TO IMMIGRATION DETENTION: PRACTICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ISSUES , LESSONS LEARNED AND THE COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS ,

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Content

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................... vii
A. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................1
A. STRUCTURE AND CONTENT ..............................................................................................................6
B. METHODOLOGICAL CAVEATS...........................................................................................................7
C. TERMINOLOGY ................................................................................................................................8
B. THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK.................................................................11
1. THE RIGHT TO SEEK AND TO ENJOY ASYLUM, OPEN AND HUMANE RECEPTION CONDITIONS, NONPENALISATION
AND FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT.......................................................................................11
1.1 The right to seek and enjoy asylum, open and humane reception conditions, and the
prohibition on penalisation for illegal entry or stay .......................................................................11
1.2 Article 26, 1951 Convention ......................................................................................................13
1.2.1 ‘Lawfully in’ the territory...................................................................................................................13
1.2.2 Standard of treatment: ‘aliens generally’ ...........................................................................................15
2. STATELESS PERSONS....................................................................................................................16
3. THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSON UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW......................17
3.1 Right to liberty and security of person under Article 9, ICCPR...............................................18
3.1.1 Detention must be in accordance with and authorised by law...........................................................19
3.1.2 Detention must not be arbitrary..........................................................................................................20
a) Reasonableness, necessity and proportionality .................................................................................21
b) Reasons for immigration detention....................................................................................................22
c) Length and extensions of detention ...................................................................................................23
d) Obligation to consider less invasive means of achieving the same objective ..................................25
e) Non-discrimination ............................................................................................................................26
f) Good faith and proper purpose...........................................................................................................28
4. THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY OF PERSONS UNDER REGIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS
INSTRUMENTS ........................................................................................................................................29
4.1 The Council of Europe and the European Convention on Human Rights................................29
4.2 European Union.........................................................................................................................33
4.3 The Americas..............................................................................................................................35
4.4 Africa..........................................................................................................................................36
5. PROCEDURAL GUARANTEES.........................................................................................................37
5.1 Informed of reasons for arrest or detention ..............................................................................38
5.2 Periodic review ..........................................................................................................................38
5.3 Right to challenge detention and possibility for order of release before a court.....................39
5.4 Burden of proof ..........................................................................................................................40
5.5 Right to compensation for unlawful or arbitrary detention......................................................40
5.6 Independent monitoring and inspection ....................................................................................41
6. STANDARDS OF TREATMENT IN DETENTION LEADING TO ARBITRARY DETENTION .........41
7. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND CHOICE OF RESIDENCE UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW.42
7.1 Lawfully within the territory......................................................................................................43
7.2 Limitations on the right to freedom of movement .....................................................................44
8. SPECIAL PROTECTIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS...........................................................................45
8.1 Children......................................................................................................................................45
8.2 Persons with mental health or physical illness or disabilities..................................................48
8.3 Women........................................................................................................................................50
8.4 The elderly..................................................................................................................................50
C. ALTERNATIVES TO IMMIGRATION DETENTION: PRACTICAL AND
FUNCTIONAL ISSUES..........................................................................................................................51
D. FIGURE 1 ......................................................................................................................................52
E. FIGURE 2 ......................................................................................................................................53
1. NO DETENTION OR RELEASE WITHOUT CONDITIONS OR ON OWN RECOGNIZANCE ............53
2. RELEASE ON CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................53
3. RELEASE ON BAIL, BOND, SURETY/GUARANTOR..........................................................................54
3.1 Canada’s Toronto Bail Program: Automatic bail hearings and government-funded bail
system ...............................................................................................................................................56
4. COMMUNITY-BASED SUPERVISED RELEASE OR CASE MANAGEMENT ................................60
4.1 NGO-run models ........................................................................................................................61
4.1.1 Australia: ‘bridging visas’/temporary lawful stay visas and community-based supervision and
support..........................................................................................................................................................61
(a) Asylum-Seeker Assistance Scheme (ASAS) ...................................................................................63
(b) Hotham Mission................................................................................................................................64
4.1.2 Hong Kong: Release on own recognizance with community support...............................................65
4.2 Hybrid government-NGO cooperation or partnership models.................................................67
4.2.1 Australia - Community Assistance Support Programme (CASP) (formerly, Community Care Pilot
(CCP)) ..........................................................................................................................................................67
4.3 Government-run models.............................................................................................................69
4.3.1 Belgium’s ‘Return Houses’ ................................................................................................................69
4.3.2 Glasgow: ‘Family Return Project’ .....................................................................................................74
5. DESIGNATED RESIDENCE .............................................................................................................78
6. ELECTRONIC TAGGING AND REPORTING, OR SATELLITE TRACKING ............................................78
7. HOME CURFEW.............................................................................................................................78
8. COMPLEMENTARY MEASURES TO ALTERNATIVES TO DETENTION...............................................79
8.1 Australia: Community Status Resolution Service (CSRS).........................................................79
8.2 Liverpool: ‘Voluntary Sector Key Worker Pilot’ ......................................................................79
8.3 Risk and needs assessment tools................................................................................................80
D. LESSONS LEARNED AND THE COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS...........................................82
1. COMPLIANCE OR COOPERATION RATES .......................................................................................82
F. TABLE 1: COMPLIANCE OR COOPERATION RATES........................................................................82
2. CRUDE COSTS...............................................................................................................................85
G. TABLE 2: DETENTION VERSUS ALTERNATIVES TO DETENTION COSTS.........................................85
3. INCREASE IN VOLUNTARY RETURN FOR FAILED ASYLUM-SEEKERS AND OTHER MIGRANTS ...85
4. ESTABLISHING ‘MINIMUM SAFEGUARDS’ AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS..................................86
E. CONCLUSION...............................................................................................................................88
ANNEX A: TABLE OF CASES.............................................................................................................90

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