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FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS free pdf ebook and notes download
Shubham Goyal

FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS free pdf ebook and notes download

Shubham Goyal | 01-Jul-2016 |
FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS , CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS , PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE , WORK AND HEAT , The First Law of Thermodynamics , FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME , THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS , Entropy , IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY , POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—WITH PHASE CHANGE , POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—GASEOUS WORKING FLUIDS , GAS MIXTURES , Thermodynamic Relations , CHEMICAL REACTIONS , INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM , COMPRESSIBLE FLOW ,

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Contents
1 SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS 1
1.1 The Simple Steam Power Plant, 1
1.2 Fuel Cells, 2
1.3 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 5
1.4 The Thermoelectric Refrigerator, 7
1.5 The Air Separation Plant, 8
1.6 The Gas Turbine, 9
1.7 The Chemical Rocket Engine, 11
1.8 Other Applications and Environmental Issues, 12
2 SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 13
2.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 13
2.2 Macroscopic Versus Microscopic Point of View, 14
2.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 15
2.4 Processes and Cycles, 16
2.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 17
2.6 Energy, 20
2.7 Specific Volume and Density, 22
2.8 Pressure, 25
2.9 Equality of Temperature, 30
2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 31
2.11 Temperature Scales, 31
2.12 Engineering Appilication, 33
3 PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE 47
3.1 The Pure Substance, 48
3.2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance, 48
3.3 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance, 55
3.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 55
3.5 Thermodynamic Surfaces, 63
3.6 The P–V–T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases, 65
3.7 The Compressibility Factor, 69
3.8 Equations of State, 72
3.9 Computerized Tables, 73
3.10 Engineering Applications, 75
4 WORK AND HEAT 90
4.1 Definition of Work, 90
4.2 Units for Work, 92
4.3 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System, 93
4.4 Other Systems that Involve Work, 102
4.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Work, 104
4.6 Definition of Heat, 106
4.7 Heat Transfer Modes, 107
4.8 Comparison of Heat and Work, 109
4.9 Engineering Applications, 110
5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 127
5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing a Cycle, 127
5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control Mass, 128
5.3 Internal Energy—A Thermodynamic Property, 135
5.4 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 137
5.5 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 141
5.6 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 146
5.7 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 147
5.8 The First Law as a Rate Equation, 154
5.9 Conservation of Mass, 156
5.10 Engineering Applications, 157
6 FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 180
6.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 180
6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 183
6.3 The Steady-State Process, 185
6.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes, 187
6.5 The Transient Process, 202
6.6 Engineering Applications, 211
7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 238
7.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 238
7.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 244
7.3 The Reversible Process, 247
7.4 Factors that Render Processes Irreversible, 248
7.5 The Carnot Cycle, 251
7.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 253
7.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 254
7.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 255
7.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 259
7.10 Engineering Applications, 262
8 ENTROPY 279
8.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 279
8.2 Entropy—A Property of a System, 283
8.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 285
8.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 287
8.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 291
8.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 293
8.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 294
8.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 298
8.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible
8.10 Entropy Generation, 303
8.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 305
8.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 309
8.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos, 311
9 SECOND-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 334
9.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 334
9.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 336
9.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process, 345
9.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 349
9.5 Engineering Applications; Efficiency, 352
9.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis, 358
10 IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY 381
10.1 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 381
10.2 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency, 393
10.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 401
10.4 Engineering Applications, 406
11 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—WITH
PHASE CHANGE 421
11.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 422
11.2 The Rankine Cycle, 424
11.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 427
11.4 The Reheat Cycle, 432
11.5 The Regenerative Cycle, 435
11.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 442
11.7 Cogeneration, 447
11.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 448
11.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 449
11.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 452
11.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle, 453
11.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations, 455
11.13 The Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 457
12 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS—GASEOUS WORKING FLUIDS 476
12.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 476
12.2 The Brayton Cycle, 477
12.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 484
12.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 486
12.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 489
12.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 492
12.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 494
12.8 The Otto Cycle, 496
12.9 The Diesel Cycle, 500
12.10 The Stirling Cycle, 503
12.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles, 503
12.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 505
13 GAS MIXTURES 523
13.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 523
13.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 530
13.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 536
13.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 538
13.5 Engineering Applications—Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart, 541
14 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 564
14.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 564
14.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 568
14.3 The Maxwell Relations, 570
14.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy, 572
14.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 578
14.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 580
14.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant emperature, 585
14.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature, 588
14.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 591
14.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real-Gas Mixtures, 594
14.11 Engineering Applications—Thermodynamic Tables, 599
15 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 615
15.1 Fuels, 615
15.2 The Combustion Process, 619
15.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 626
15.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 629
15.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion; Heat of Reaction, 635
15.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 640
15.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 642
15.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 643
15.9 Fuel Cells, 648
15.10 Engineering Applications, 651
16 INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 672
16.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 672
16.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 674
16.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 678
16.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 679
16.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 689
16.6 Coal Gasification, 693
16.7 Ionization, 694
16.8 Applications, 696
17 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 709
17.1 Stagnation Properties, 709
17.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, 711
17.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, 714
17.4 Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle, 716
17.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, 718
17.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through
a Nozzle, 721
17.7 Mass Rate of Flow of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, 724
17.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, 729
17.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, 734
17.10 Nozzle and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, 737

 

FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMODYNAMICS SEVENTH EDITION by CLAUS BORGNAKKE & RICHARD E. SONNTAG full ebook download free

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