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Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques full pdf ebook download
Neeraj Yadav

Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques full pdf ebook download

Neeraj Yadav | 10-Jul-2016 |
Methods and Techniques , Research Methodology: An Introduction , Defining the Research Problem , RESEARCH DESIGN , Sampling Design , Measurement and Scaling Techniques , Methods of Data Collection , Processing and Analysis of Data , Sampling Fundamentals , Testing of Hypotheses , Chi-square Test , Analysis of Variance and Covariance , Multivariate Analysis Techniques , Interpretation and Report Writing , The Computer: Its Role in Research ,

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Index for Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques

1. Research Methodology: An Introduction 1
Meaning of Research 1
Objectives of Research 2
Motivation in Research 2
Types of Research 2
Research Approaches 5
Significance of Research 5
Research Methods versus Methodology 7
Research and Scientific Method 9
Importance of Knowing How Research is Done 10
Research Process 10
Criteria of Good Research 20
Problems Encountered by Researchers in India 21

2. Defining the Research Problem 24
What is a Research Problem? 24
Selecting the Problem 25
Necessity of Defining the Problem 26
Technique Involved in Defining a Problem 27
An Illustration 29
Conclusion 29

3. Research Design 31
Meaning of Research Design 31
Need for Research Design 32
Features of a Good Design 33
Important Concepts Relating to Research Design 33
Different Research Designs 35
Basic Principles of Experimental Designs 39
Conclusion 52
Developing a Research Plan 53

4. Sampling Design 55
Census and Sample Survey 55
Implications of a Sample Design 55
Steps in Sampling Design 56
Criteria of Selecting a Sampling Procedure 57
Characteristics of a Good Sample Design 58
Different Types of Sample Designs 58
How to Select a Random Sample? 60
Random Sample from an Infinite Universe 61
Complex Random Sampling Designs 62
Conclusion 67

5. Measurement and Scaling Techniques 69
Measurement in Research 69
Measurement Scales 71
Sources of Error in Measurement 72
Tests of Sound Measurement 73
Technique of Developing Measurement Tools 75
Scaling 76
Meaning of Scaling 76
Scale Classification Bases 77
Important Scaling Techniques 78
Scale Construction Techniques 82

6. Methods of Data Collection 95
Collection of Primary Data 95
Observation Method 96
Interview Method 97
Collection of Data through Questionnaires 100
Collection of Data through Schedules 104
Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules 104
Some Other Methods of Data Collection 106
Collection of Secondary Data 111
Contents xiii
Selection of Appropriate Method for Data Collection 112
Case Study Method 113
(i) Guidelines for Constructing Questionnaire/Schedule 118
(ii) Guidelines for Successful Interviewing 119
(iii) Difference between Survey and Experiment 120

7. Processing and Analysis of Data 122
Processing Operations 122
Some Problems in Processing 129
Elements/Types of Analysis 130
Statistics in Research 131
Measures of Central Tendency 132
Measures of Dispersion 134
Measures of Asymmetry (Skewness) 136
Measures of Relationship 138
Simple Regression Analysis 141
Multiple Correlation and Regression 142
Partial Correlation 143
Association in Case of Attributes 144
Other Measures 147
Appendix: Summary Chart Concerning Analysis of Data 151

8. Sampling Fundamentals 152
Need for Sampling 152
Some Fundamental Definitions 152
Important Sampling Distributions 155
Central Limit Theorem 157
Sampling Theory 158
Sandler’s A-test 162
Concept of Standard Error 163
Estimation 167
Estimating the Population Mean (m) 168
Estimating Population Proportion 172
Sample Size and its Determination 174
Determination of Sample Size through the Approach
Based on Precision Rate and Confidence Level 175
Determination of Sample Size through the Approach
Based on Bayesian Statistics 180

9. Testing of Hypotheses-I (Parametric or 184
Standard Tests of Hypotheses)
What is a Hypothesis? 184
Basic Concepts Concerning Testing of Hypotheses 185
Procedure for Hypothesis Testing 191
Flow Diagram for Hypothesis Testing 192
Measuring the Power of a Hypothesis Test 193
Tests of Hypotheses 195
Important Parametric Tests 195
Hypothesis Testing of Means 197
Hypothesis Testing for Differences between Means 207
Hypothesis Testing for Comparing Two Related Samples 214
Hypothesis Testing of Proportions 218
Hypothesis Testing for Difference between Proportions 220
Hypothesis Testing for Comparing a Variance to
Some Hypothesized Population Variance 224
Testing the Equality of Variances of Two Normal Populations 225
Hypothesis Testing of Correlation Coefficients 228
Limitations of the Tests of Hypotheses 229

10. Chi-square Test 233
Chi-square as a Test for Comparing Variance 233
Chi-square as a Non-parametric Test 236
Conditions for the Application of c2 Test 238
Steps Involved in Applying Chi-square Test 238
Alternative Formula 246
Yates’ Correction 246
Conversion of c2 into Phi Coefficient 249
Conversion of c2 into Coefficient by Contingency 250
Important Characteristics of c2 Test 250
Caution in Using c2 Test 250

11. Analysis of Variance and Covariance 256
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 256
What is ANOVA? 256
The Basic Principle of ANOVA 257
ANOVA Technique 258
Setting up Analysis of Variance Table 259
Short-cut Method for One-way ANOVA 260
Coding Method 261
Two-way ANOVA 264
ANOVA in Latin-Square Design 271
Analysis of Co-variance (ANOCOVA) 275
ANOCOVA Technique 275
Assumptions in ANOCOVA 276

12. Testing of Hypotheses-II 283
(Nonparametric or Distribution-free Tests)
Important Nonparametric or Distribution-free Test 284
Relationship between Spearman’s r’s and Kendall’s W 310
Characteristics of Distribution-free or Non-parametric Tests 311
Conclusion 313

13. Multivariate Analysis Techniques 315
Growth of Multivariate Techniques 315
Characteristics and Applications 316
Classification of Multivariate Techniques 316
Variables in Multivariate Analysis 318
Important Multivariate Techniques 318
Important Methods of Factor Analysis 323
Rotation in Factor Analysis 335
R-type and Q-type Factor Analyses 336
Path Analysis 339
Conclusion 340
Appendix: Summary Chart: Showing the Appropriateness
of a Particular Multivariate Technique 343

14. Interpretation and Report Writing 344
Meaning of Interpretation 344
Why Interpretation? 344
Technique of Interpretation: 345
Precaution in Interpretation 345
Significance of Report Writing 346
Different Steps in Writing Report 347
Layout of the Research Report 348
Types of Reports 351
Oral Presentation 353
Mechanics of Writing a Research Report 353
Precautions for Writing Research Reports 358
Conclusions 359

15. The Computer: Its Role in Research 361
Introduction 361
The Computer and Computer Technology 361
The Computer System 363
Important Characteristics 364
The Binary Number System 365
Computer Applications 370
Computers and Researcher 371

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varaprasad rajana

varaprasad rajana

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