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Power Plant Engineering Full Ebook and Lecture notes in PDF Download
Ravi Chopra

Power Plant Engineering Full Ebook and Lecture notes in PDF Download

Ravi Chopra | 15-Jan-2016 |
Fundamental of Power Plant , Non-Conventional Energy Resources and Utilisation , Power Plant Economics and Variable Load Problem , Steam Power Plant , Steam Turbine , Fuels and Combustion , Diesel Power Plant , Gas Turbine Power Plant , Nuclear Power Plant , Hydro-Electric Power Plants , Electrical System , Pollution and its Control ,

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Preface ... (v)

Syllabus ... (vii)

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Power Plant ... 1

1.1 Introduction ... 1

1.2 Concept of Power Plants ... 1

1.3 Classification of Power Plants ... 2

1.4 Energy ... 3

1.5 Types of Energy ... 4

1.6 Power ... 5

1.7 Power Development in India ... 5

1.8 Resources for Power Generation ... 7

1.9 Present Power Position in India ... 9

1.10 Future Planning for Power Generation ... 9

1.11 Power Corporations in India ... 11

1.11.1 National Thermal Power Corporation ... 11

1.11.2 National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation ... 11

1.11.3 Rural Electrification Corporation ... 12

1.11.4 Damodar Valley Corporation ... 12

1.11.5 North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited ... 12

1.11.6 Bhakra Beas Management Board and Beas Construction Board ... 13

1.11.7 Power Engineers Training Society (PETS) ... 13

1.11.8 Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bangalore ... 13

1.11.9 Nathpa, Jhaicri Power Corporation Limited ... 13

1.12 Review of Thermodynamics Cycles Related to Power Plants ... 14

1.13 Classification of Power Plant Cycle ... 15

1.13.1 Carnot Cycle ... 15

1.13.2 Rankine Cycle ... 15

1.13.3 Reheat Cycle ... 16

1.13.4 Regenerative Cycle (Feed Water Heating) ... 16

1.13.5 Binary Vapour Cycle ... 17

1.13.6 Reheat-Regenerative Cycle ... 17

1.13.7 Formula Summary ... 18

1.14 Fuels and Combustion ... 18

1.15 Steam Generators ... 18

1.16 Steam Prime Movers ... 19

1.17 Steam Condensers ... 19

1.17.1 Surface Condensers ... 20

1.17.2 Jet Condensers ... 22

1.17.3 Types of Jet Condensers ... 22

1.18 Water (Hydraulic) Turbines ... 23

1.18.1 Impulse and Reaction Turbines ... 23

1.19 Scienc Vs. Technology ... 25

1.19.1 Scientific Research ... 25

1.19.2 Science and Technology Infrastructure ... 26

1.20 Facts Vs. Values ... 26

1.21 Atomic Energy ... 26

1.22 Highlights of the Nuclear Power Programme ... 27

1.23 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited ... 27

1.24 Ocean Engineering Applications ... 28

Chapter 2: Non-Conventional Energy Resources and Utilisation ... 33

2.1 Introduction ... 33

2.2 Energy Science ... 33

2.3 Various Energy Science ... 33

2.4 Energy Technology ... 35

2.5 Energy Technology and Energy Sciences ... 36

2.6 Law of Conservation of Energy ... 37

2.7 Facts and Figures about Energy ... 37

2.8 Indian and Global Energy Sources ... 38

2.8.1 The Sun ... 38

2.8.2 etroleum ... 39

2.8.3 Natural Gas ... 43

2.8.4 Coal ... 44

2.8.5 Nuclear Energy ... 45

2.8.6 LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) ... 46

2.8.7 Alcohol ... 46

2.8.8 Gasohol ... 46

2.8.9 Hydro Power ... 46

2.9 Energy Exploited ... 46

2.10 Energy Demand ... 48

(viii)

2.11 Energy Planning ... 49

2.12 Introduction to Various Sources of Energy ... 51

2.12.1 Conventional Sources of Energy ... 51

2.12.2 Non-Conventional Sources of Energy ... 51

2.13 Introduction to Various Non-Conventional Energy Resources ... 52

2.14 Bio-Gas ... 53

2.14.1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bio-Conversion Process ... 53

2.14.2 Raw Materials ... 55

2.14.3 Properties of Bio Gas ... 56

2.14.4 Bio Gas Plant Technology ... 56

2.15 Wind Energy ... 58

2.15.1 Wind Machine Fundamentals ... 59

2.15.2 Aerofoil Design ... 60

2.15.3 Wind Power Systems ... 62

2.15.4 Economic Issues ... 63

2.15.5 Selection of Wind Mill ... 64

2.15.6 Recent Developments ... 65

2.16 Solar Energy ... 66

2.16.1 Solar Radiations ... 67

2.16.2 Solar Thermal Power Plant ... 68

2.16.3 Solar Energy Storage ... 70

2.16.4 Recent Developments in Solar Power Plants ... 72

2.17 Electrochemical Effects and Fuel Cells ... 73

2.17.1 Reversible Cells ... 73

2.17.2 Ideal Fuel Cells ... 74

2.17.3 Other Types of Fuel Cells ... 75

2.17.4 Efficiency of Cells ... 76

2.18 Thermionic Systems and Thennionic Emission ... 78

2.18.1 Thermoionic Conversion ... 79

2.18.2 Ideal and Actual Efficiency ... 80

2.19 Thermoelectric Systems ... 82

2.19.1 Principle of Working ... 82

2.19.2 Performance ... 83

2.20 Geo Thermal Energy ... 86

2.20.1 Hot Springs ... 87

2.20.2 Steam Ejection ... 87

2.20.3 Site Selection ... 88

(ix)

2.20.4 Geothermal Power Plants ... 88

2.20.5 Advanced Concepts ... 95

2.21 Ocean Energy ... 97

2.21.1 Power Plants Based on Ocean Energy ... 98

2.22 Other Energy Technology ... 101

2.22.1 Liquid Fuel ... 101

2.22.2 Fuel Cell Technology ... 103

2.22.3 Hydrogen Energy ... 104

2.22.4 Hydrogen Energy Technology ... 104

2.22.5 Battery Operated Vehicles ... 106

2.22.6 Bio Fuel Technology ... 107

2.22.7 Hydroelectric Power ... 107

2.22.8 Innovative Heat Exchanger to Save Energy ... 108

Chapter 3: Power Plant Economics and Variable Load Problem ... 120

3.1 Terms and Factors ... 120

3.2 Factor Effecting Power Plant Design ... 122

3.3 Effect of Power Plant Type on Costs ... 122

3.3.1 Initial Cost ... 122

3.3.2 Rate of Interest ... 123

3.3.3 Depreciation ... 123

3.3.4 Operational Costs ... 124

3.3.5 Cost of Fuels ... 125

3.3.6 Labout Cost ... 125

3.3.7 Cost of Maintenance and Repairs ... 125

3.3.8 Cost of Stores ... 125

3.3.9 Supervision ... 126

3.3.10 Taxes ... 126

3.4 Effect of Plant Type on Rates (Tariffs or Energy Element) ... 126

3.4.1 Requirements of a Tariff ... 126

3.4.2 Types of Tariffs ... 126

3.5 Effect of Plant Type on Fixed Elements ... 129

3.6 Effect of Plant Type on Customer Elements ... 129

3.7 Investor’s Profit ... 129

3.8 Economics in Plant Selection ... 130

3.9 Economic of Power Generation ... 131

3.10 Industrial Production and Power Generational Compared ... 132

3.11 Load Curves ... 132

(x)

3.12 Ideal and Realized Load Curves ... 133

3.13 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plan Design ... 133

3.14 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plant Operation ... 134

Chapter 4 : Steam Power Plant ... 142

4.1 Introduction ... 142

4.2 Essentials of Steam Power Plant Equipment ... 142

4.2.1 Power Station Design ... 144

4.2.2 Characteristics of Steam Power Plant ... 144

4.3 Coal Handling ... 145

4.3.1 Dewatering of Coal ... 149

4.4 Fuel Burning Furnaces ... 150

4.4.1 Types of Furnaces ... 150

4.5 Method of Fuel Firing ... 151

4.5.1 Hand Firing ... 151

4.5.2 Mechanical Firing (Stokers) ... 153

4.6 Automatic Boiler Control ... 156

4.7 Pulverized Coal ... 157

4.7.1 Ball Mill ... 158

4.7.2 Ball and Race Mill ... 159

4.7.3 Shaft Mill ... 161

4.8 Pulverized Coal Firing ... 161

4.9 Pulverized Coal Burners ... 163

4.9.1 Cyclone Fired Boilers ... 166

4.10 Water Walls ... 166

4.11 Ash Disposal ... 167

4.11.1 Ash Handling Equipment ... 168

4.12 Smoke and Dust Removal ... 172

4.13 Types of Dust Collectors ... 172

4.13.1 Fly Ash Scrubber ... 174

4.13.2 Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ... 175

4.13.3 Types of FBC Systems ... 176

Chapter 5 : Steam Generator ... 179

5.1 Introduction ... 179

5.2 Types of Boilers ... 179

5.3 Cochran Boilers ... 181

5.4 Lancashire Boiler ... 183

(xi)

5.5 Locomotive Boiler ... 185

5.6 Babcock Wilcox Boiler ... 187

5.7 Industrial Boilers ... 189

5.8 Merits and Demerits of Water Tube Boilers over Fire Tube Boilers Mertis ... 189

5.9 Requirements of a Good Boiler ... 190

5.10 High Pressure Boilers ... 190

5.10.1 La Mont Boiler ... 191

5.10.2 Benson Boiler ... 191

5.10.3 Loeffler Boiler ... 192

5.10.4 Schmidt-Hartmann Boiler ... 193

5.10.5 Velox Boiler ... 193

Chapter 6 : Steam Turbine ... 195

6.1 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine ... 195

6.2 Classification of Steam Turbine ... 196

6.3 The Simple Impulse Turbine ... 200

6.4 Compounding of Impulse Turbine ... 201

6.5 Pressure Compounded Impulse Turbine ... 202

6.6 Simple Velocity-Compounded Impulse Turbine ... 203

6.7 Pressure and Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine ... 204

6.8 Impulse-Reaction Turbine ... 205

6.9 Advantages of Steam Turbine over Steam Engine ... 206

6.10 Steam Turbine Capacity ... 206

6.11 Capability ... 207

6.12 Steam Turbine Governing ... 207

6.13 Steam Turbine Performance ... 207

6.14 Steam Turbine Testing ... 208

6.15 Choice of Steam Turbine ... 208

6.16 Steam Turbine Generators ... 208

6.17 Steam Turbine Specifications ... 209

Chapter 7 : Fuels and Combustion ... 217

7.1 Introduction ... 217

7.2 Coal ... 217

7.3 Coal Analysis ... 219

7.3.1 Proximate Analysis ... 219

7.3.2 Ultimate Analysis ... 219

7.3.3 Heating Value ... 219

(xii)

7.4 Coal Firing ... 221

7.5 Mechanical Stokers ... 222

7.6 Pulverized-Coal Firing ... 224

7.7 Cyclone Furnaces ... 230

Chapter 8 : Diesel Power Plant ... 234

8.1 Introduction ... 234

8.2 Operating Principle ... 236

8.3 Basic Types of IC Engines ... 236

8.3.1 Two-Stroke, Spark Ignition Gas Engines/Petrol Engines ... 237

8.3.2 Diesel Engines/Heavy Oil Engines ... 237

8.3.3 Duel Fuel Engines ... 237

8.3.4 High Compression Gas Engines ... 238

8.4 Advantage of Diesel Power Plant ... 238

8.5 Disadvantage of Diesel Power Plant ... 238

8.6 Application of Diesel Power Plant ... 238

8.7 General Layout of Diesel Power Plant ... 239

8.8 Performance of Diesel Engine ... 239

8.8.1 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) ... 239

8.8.2 Indicated Hourse Power (IHP) ... 239

8.8.3 Brake Horse Power (B.H.P.) ... 240

8.8.4 Frictional Horse Power (F.H.P.) ... 240

8.8.5 Indicated Thermal Efficiency ... 240

8.8.6 Brake Thermal Efficiency (Overall Efficiency) ... 240

8.8.7 Mechanical Efficiency ... 240

8.9 Fuel System of Diesel Power Plant ... 241

8.10 Lubrication System of Diesel Power Plant ... 242

8.10.1 Liquid Lubicricants or Wet Sump Lubrication System ... 244

8.10.2 Solid Lubricants or Dry Sump Lubrication System ... 246

8.10.3 Mist Lubrication System ... 246

8.11 Air Intakes and Admission System of Diesel Power Plant ... 246

8.12 Supercharging System of Diesel Power Plant ... 247

8.12.1 Types of Supercharger ... 248

8.12.2 Advantages of Supercharging ... 249

8.13 Exhaust System of Diesel Power Plant ... 249

8.14 Cooling System of Diesel Power Plant ... 250

8.14.1 Open Cooling System ... 251

8.14.2 Natural Circulation System ... 251

(xiii)

8.14.3 Forced Circulation Cooling System ... 251

8.15 Diesel Plant Operation ... 252

8.16 Efficiency of Diesel Power Plant ... 253

8.17 Heat Balance Sheet ... 255

Chapter 9 : Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 267

9.1 Introduction ... 267

9.2 Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 267

9.2.1 Open Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 268

9.2.2 Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 269

9.3 Elements of Gas Turbine Power Plants ... 272

9.3.1 Compressors ... 272

9.3.2 Intercoolers and Heat Exchangers ... 273

9.3.3 Combustion Chambers ... 274

9.3.4 Gas Turbines ... 276

9.4 Regeneration and Reheating ... 276

9.4.1 Regeneration ... 276

9.4.2 Reheating ... 278

9.5 Cogeneration ... 279

9.5.1 Cogeneration—Why ... 279

9.5.2 Cogeneration Technologies ... 280

9.6 Auxiliary Systems ... 282

9.6.1 Starting Systems ... 282

9.6.2 Ignition Systems ... 283

9.6.3 Lubrication System ... 283

9.6.4 Fuel System and Controls ... 285

9.7 Control of Gas Turbines ... 286

9.7.1 Prime Control ... 286

9.7.2 Protective Controls .... 287

9.8 Gas Turbine Efficiency ... 289

9.8.1 Effect of Blade Friction ... 291

9.8.2 Improvement in Open Cycle ... 291

9.9 Operations and Maintenance Performance ... 292

9.9.1 Operation ... 292

9.9.2 Maintenance Performance ... 293

9.10. Troubleshooting and Remedies ... 294

9.11 Combined Cycle Power Plants ... 295

9.12 Applications of Gas Turbine ... 296

(xiv)

9.13 Advantages of Gas Turbine Power Plant ... 296

9.14 Disadvantages ... 297

Chapter 10 : Nuclear Power Plant ... 307

10.1 Introduction ... 307

10.2 General History and Trends ... 308

10.2.1 Major Events ... 308

10.2.2 What Might Change the Current Situation ? ... 309

10.2.3 Technical History and Developments ... 311

10.2.4 Developments After WW-2 ... 311

10.3 The Atomic Structure ... 312

10.4 Summary of Nuclear Energy Concepts and Terms ... 314

10.4.1 Summary of Features ... 314

10.4.2 Fission ... 314

10.4.3 Critical Mass ... 315

10.4.4 Alpha Radiation ... 315

10.4.5 Beta Particles ... 315

10.4.6 Gamma Particles ... 315

10.4.7 Uramium Fission ... 315

10.4.8 Half Life, T ... 316

10.5 Ethical Problems in Nuclear Power Regulation ... 316

10.6 Chemical and Nuclear Equations ... 316

10.7 Nuclear Fusion and Fission ... 317

10.7.1 Fusion ... 318

10.7.2 Fission ... 319

10.8 Energy From Fission and Fuel Burn Up ... 320

10.9 Radioactivity ... 320

10.10 Nuclear Reactor ... 322

10.10.1 Parts of a Nuclear Reactor ... 322

10.10.2 Nuclear Fuel ... 322

10.10.3 Moderator ... 324

10.10.4 Moderating Ratio ... 324

10.10.5 Reflector ... 325

10.10.6 Reactor Vessel ... 325

10.10.7 Biological Shieding ... 326

10.10.8 Coolant ... 326

10.10.9 Coolant Cycles ... 326

10.10.10 Reactor Core ... 326

(xv)

10.11 Conservation Ratio ... 327

10.12 Neutron Flux ... 327

10.13 Clasification of Reactors ... 327

10.14 Cost of Nuclear Power Plant ... 327

10.15 Nuclear Power Station in India ... 328

10.16 Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) ... 331

10.16.1 Importance of Heavy Water ... 332

10.17 Site Selection ... 333

10.18 Comparison of Nulcear Power Plant and Steam Power Plant ... 334

10.19 Multiplication Factor ... 334

10.20 Uranium Enrichment ... 334

10.21 Reactor Power Control ... 336

10.22 Nuclear Power Plant Economics ... 336

10.23 Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants ... 337

10.24 Site Selection and Commissioning Procedure ... 338

10.25 Major Nuclear Power Disasters ... 338

10.26 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant ... 339

10.26.1 Reactor Design: RBMK-1000 ... 340

10.26.2 Control of the Reactor ... 340

10.26.3 Chernobyl Reactor Operations ... 340

10.26.4 Accident/Safety Plans ... 340

10.26.5 Evacuation ... 340

10.27 Safety Problems in Chernobyl Reactor Design ... 340

10.27.1 System Dynamics ... 340

10.27.2 Another Safety Problem with the Design ... 341

10.28 Other, Earlier, Soviet Nuclear Accidents ... 341

Chapter 11 : Hydro-Electric Power Plants ... 343

11.1 Introduction ... 343

11.2 Run-Off ... 345

11.3 Hydrograph and Flow Duration Curve ... 347

11.4 The Mass Curve .. 347

11.5 Selection of Site for a Hydro-Electric Power Plant ... 348

11.6 Essential Features of a Water-Power Plant ... 349

11.7 Calculations of Water Power Plants ... 351

11.8 Classification of Hydro-Plant ... 352

11.8.1 Storage Plants ... 352

11.8.2 Run-of-River Power Plants ... 354

(xvi)

11.8.3 Pumped Storage Power Plants ... 354

11.9 Power House and Turbine Setting ... 355

11.9.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Underground Power-House ... 359

11.10 Prime-Movers ... 362

11.11 Specific Speed of Turbine ... 367

11.12 Draft Tubes ... 370

11.12.1 Methods to Avoid Cavitation ... 375

11.12.2 Types of Draft Tubes ... 375

11.12.3 Different Types of Draft Tubes ... 377

11.13 Models and Model Testing ... 378

11.14 Selection of Turbine ... 381

Chapter 12 : Electrical System ... 386

12.1 Introduction ... 386

12.2 Generators and Motors ... 386

12.2.1 Rotors ... 387

12.2.2 Stators ... 389

12.2.3 Ventilation ... 390

12.2.4 Hight-Voltage Generators ... 392

12.3 Transformers ... 392

12.3.1 Constructional Parts ... 393

12.3.2 Core Constructions ... 393

12.3.3 Windings ... 397

12.4 Cooling of Transformers ... 402

12.4.1 Simple Cooling ... 403

12.4.2 Mixed Cooling ... 403

12.4.3 Natural Oil Cooling ... 403

12.4.4 Forced Oil Cooling ... 405

12.4.5 Internal Cooling ... 406

12.5 Bus-Bar ... 409

12.5.1 Single Bus-Bar System ... 409

12.5.2 Single Bus-Bar System with Sectionalisation ... 409

12.5.3 Duplicate Bus-Bar System ... 410

12.6 Busbar Protection ... 411

12.6.1 Differential Protection ... 411

12.6.2 Fault Bus Protection ... 412

(xvii)

Chapter 13 : Pollution and its Control ... 414

13.1 Introduction ... 414

13.2 Environment Pollution due to Energy Use ... 414

13.3 Environment Pollution due to Industrial Trial Emissions ... 415

13.4 Environment Pollution to Road Transport ... 415

13.5 Harmful Effects of Emissions ... 415

13.5.1 Buildings and Materials ... 416

13.5.2 Soil, Vegetation and Animal Life ... 416

13.5.3 Human Beings ... 416

13.6 Steps Taken so far and their Impact ... 416

13.7 Noise Pollution and its Control ... 417

13.8 Green House Gases and their Effects ... 418

13.9 Fossil Fuel Pollution ... 419

13.9.1 Urban Air Pollution ... 419

13.9.2 Acid Rain ... 420

13.9.3 Global Climate Change ... 420

13.9.4 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion ... 420

13.9.4 Acid Fog ... 420

13.10 Pollution due to Combustion of Fuel ... 421

13.10.1 Gas Fuel ... 421

13.10.2 Methane ... 421

13.10.3 Alkanes ... 422

13.11 Pollution due to Gas Combustion ... 422

13.11.1 Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHCS) ... 422

13.11.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) ... 422

13.11.3 Nitric Oxide (NOx) ... 422

13.11.4 Soot ... 424

13.12 Pollution due to Liquid Fuel ... 424

13.12.1 Atomization ... 424

13.12.2 Vaporization ... 424

13.12.3 Modes of Combustion ... 424

13.13 Pollution due to Solid Fuel ... 425

13.14 Air Pollution by Thermal Power Plants ... 428

13.15 Water Pollution by Thermal Power Plants ... 428

13.16 Environment Concerns and Diesel Power Plants ... 429

13.17 Nuclear Power Plant and the Environment ... 431

(xviii)

13.17.1 The Fuel Cycle ... 432

13.17.2 Wastes ... 433

13.18 Radiations from Nuclear-Power Plant Effluents ... 434

13.19 Impact on Pollution and Air Qality in Delhi ... 434

13.19.1 Environmental Concerns ... 435

13.19.2 Pollution Levels ... 435

13.19.3 Measurs to Combat Pollution ... 436

13.20 Method for Pollution Control ... 440

13.21 Control of Marine Pollution ... 441

 

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