ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS , Loop Antennas , Antenna Arrays , RADIATION FIELDS OF WIRE ANTENNAS , TRAVELLING WAVE (WIDEBAND) ANTENNAS , APERTURE AND LENS ANTENNAS , ROPAGATION , The three basic types of propagation , Sky Wave Propagation , Space Wave Propagation , Ground Wave Propagation ,
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UNIT I ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS 9
Definitions – Radiation intensity – Directive gain – Directivity – Power gain – Beam
width – Band width – Gain and radiation resistance of current element – Half-wave
dipole and folded dipole – Reciprocity principle – Effective length and effective area –
Relation between gain, effective length and radiation resistance.
Loop Antennas: Radiation from small loop and its radiation resistance – Radiation
from a loop with circumference equal to wavelength and resultant circular polarization
Helical antenna. Normal mode and axial mode operation.
Antenna Arrays: Expression for electric field from two and three element arrays –
Uniform linear array – Method of pattern multiplication – Binomial array – End-fire
UNIT II RADIATION FIELDS OF WIRE ANTENNAS 9
Concept of vector potential – Modification for time varying – Retarded case – Fields
associated with Hertzian dipole – Power radiated and radiation resistance of current
element – Radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current distribution –
Radiation from half-wave dipole and quarter – Wave monopole – Assumed current
distribution for wire antennas – Use of capacity hat and loading coil for short
UNIT III TRAVELLING WAVE (WIDEBAND) ANTENNAS 9
Loop antenna (elementary treatment only) – Helical antenna – Radiation from a
travelingwave on a wire – Analysis of rhombic antenna – Design of rhombic antennas
– Yagi-Udaantenna – Log periodic antenna.
UNIT IV APERTURE AND LENS ANTENNAS 9
Radiation from an elemental area of a plane wave (Huygen‘s source) – Radiation from
the open end of a coaxial line – Radiation from a rectangular aperture treated as an
of huygen‘s source – Equivalence of fields of a slot and complementary dipole –
between dipole and slot impedances – Method of feeding slot antennas – Thin slot in
infinite cylinder – Field on the axis of an E-plane sectoral horn – Radiation from
aperture – Beam width and effective area – Reflector type of antennas (dish antennas).
dielectric lens and metal plane lens antennas – Luxemberg lens – Spherical waves and
UNIT V PROPAGATION 9
The three basic types of propagation: Ground wave, space wave and sky wave
Sky Wave Propagation: Structure of the ionosphere – Effective dielectric constant of
ionized region – Mechanism of refraction – Refractive index – Critical frequency –
distance – Effect of earth‘s magnetic field – Energy loss in the ionosphere due to
collisions – Maximum usable frequency – Fading and diversity reception.
Space Wave Propagation: Reflection from ground for vertically and horizontally
polarized waves – Reflection characteristics of earth – Resultant of direct and
reflectedray at the receiver – Duct propagation.
Ground Wave Propagation: Attenuation characteristics for ground wave
propagation –Calculation of field strength at a distance.
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