# THEORY OF COMPUTATION LECTURE NOTES download for Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering

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Module – I
Introduction to Automata: The Methods Introduction to Finite Automata, Structural
Representations, Automata and Complexity. Proving Equivalences about Sets, The
Contrapositive, Proof by Contradiction, Inductive Proofs: General Concepts of Automata
Theory: Alphabets Strings, Languages, Applications of Automata Theory.
Finite Automata: The Ground Rules, The Protocol, Deterministic Finite Automata: Definition
of a Deterministic Finite Automata, How a DFA Processes Strings, Simpler Notations for
DFA’s, Extending the Transition Function to Strings, The Language of a DFA
Nondeterministic Finite Automata: An Informal View. The Extended Transition Function, The Languages of an NFA, Equivalence of Deterministic and Nondeterministic Finite Automata.
Finite Automata With Epsilon-Transitions: Uses of Î-Transitions, The Formal Notation for an
Î-NFA, Epsilon-Closures, Extended Transitions and Languages for Î-NFA’s, Eliminating Î-
Transitions.
Module – II
Regular Expressions and Languages: Regular Expressions: The Operators of regular
Expressions, Building Regular Expressions, Precedence of Regular-Expression Operators,
Precedence of Regular-Expression Operators
Finite Automata and Regular Expressions: From DFA’s to Regular Expressions, Converting
DFA’s to Regular Expressions, Converting DFA’s to Regular Expressions by Eliminating States,
Converting Regular Expressions to Automata.
Algebraic Laws for Regular Expressions:
Properties of Regular Languages: The Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages, Applications
of the Pumping Lemma Closure Properties of Regular Languages, Decision Properties of
Regular Languages, Equivalence and Minimization of Automata,
Context-Free Grammars and Languages: Definition of Context-Free Grammars, Derivations
Using a Grammars Leftmost and Rightmost Derivations, The Languages of a Grammar,
Parse Trees: Constructing Parse Trees, The Yield of a Parse Tree, Inference Derivations, and
Parse Trees, From Inferences to Trees, From Trees to Derivations, From Derivation to Recursive
Inferences,
Applications of Context-Free Grammars: Parsers, Ambiguity in Grammars and Languages:
Ambiguous Grammars, Removing Ambiguity From Grammars, Leftmost Derivations as a Way
to Express Ambiguity, Inherent Anbiguity
Module – III
Pushdown Automata: Definition Formal Definition of Pushdown Automata, A Graphical
Notation for PDA’s, Instantaneous Descriptions of a PDA,
Languages of PDA: Acceptance by Final State, Acceptance by Empty Stack, From Empty Stack
to Final State, From Final State to Empty Stack
Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s: From Grammars to Pushdown Automata, From PDA’s to
Grammars
Deterministic Pushdown Automata: Definition of a Deterministic PDA, Regular Languages
and Deterministic PDA’s, DPDA’s and Context-Free Languages, DPDA’s and Ambiguous
Grammars
Properties of Context-Free Languages: Normal Forms for Context-Free Grammars, The
Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Languages, Closure Properties of Context-Free Languages,
Decision Properties of CFL’s
Module –IV
Introduction to Turing Machines: The Turing Machine: The Instantaneous Descriptions for
Turing Machines, Transition Diagrams for Turing Machines, The Language of a Turing
Machine, Turing Machines and Halting
Programming Techniques for Turing Machines, Extensions to the Basic Turing Machine,
Restricted Turing Machines, Turing Machines and Computers,
Undecidability: A Language That is Not Recursively Enumerable, Enumerating the Binary
Strings, Codes for Turing Machines, The Diagonalization Language
An Undecidable Problem That Is RE: Recursive Languages, Complements of Recursive and RE
languages, The Universal Languages, Undecidability of the Universal Language
Undecidable Problems About Turing Machines: Reductions, Turing Machines That Accept the
Empty Language. Post’s Correspondence Problem: Definition of Post’s Correspondence
Problem, The “Modified” PCP, Other Undecidable Problems: Undecidability of Ambiguity for
CFG’s

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