UNIT I FUNDAMENTALS
Functional elements of an instrument – Static and dynamic characteristics – Errors in measurement– Statistical evaluation of measurement data – Standards and calibration
UNIT II ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTS
Principle and types of analog and digital instruments –Voltmeters – Ammeters - Multimeters –
Single and three phase wattmeters and energy meters – Magnetic measurements – Determination
of B-H curve and measurements of iron loss – Instrument transformers – Instruments for
measurement of frequency and phase.
UNIT III COMPARISON METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS
D.C and A.C potentiometers – D.C and A.C bridges – Transformer ratio bridges – Self-balancing
bridges – Interference and screening – Multiple earth and earth loops – Electrostatic and
electromagnetic interference – Grounding techniques.
UNIT IV STORAGE AND DISPLAY DEVICES
Magnetic disk and tape – Recorders, digital plotters and printers – CRT display – Digital CRO,
LED, LCD and dot-matrix display – Data Loggers
UNIT V TRANSDUCERS AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS
Classification of transducers – Selection of transducers – Resistive, capacitive and inductive
transducers – Piezoelectric, optical and digital transducers – Elements of data acquisition system
– A/D, D/A converters – Smart sensors.