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FLUID FLOW Lecture Notes and Ebook Download
Pankaj Yadav

FLUID FLOW Lecture Notes and Ebook Download

Pankaj Yadav | 16-Feb-2016 |
INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS , Compression of Fluids , NATURAL CIRCULATION FLOW , VOLUMETRIC AND MASS FLOW RATE , TYPES OF FLOW , FORMS OF ENERGY &THE GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION , Energy Conversions in Real Fluid Systems , Fluid Flow Measurement , Unintended Siphoning , INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS , Compression of Fluids , NATURAL CIRCULATION FLOW , VOLUMETRIC AND MASS FLOW RATE , TYPES OF FLOW , FORMS OF ENERGY &THE GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION , Energy Conversions in Real Fluid Systems , Fluid Flow Measurement , Unintended Siphoning ,

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Contents:---..........................................................................................................................iii
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO FLUIDS......................................................................12
Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................12
Description of Fluids..............................................................................................................................13
Humidity.................................................................................................................................................14
Relative Humidity..................................................................................................................................14
Density () and Specific Volume ().........................................................................................................14
Density Differences for Non-Mixable (Non-Miscible) Fluids.............................................................15
Specific Gravity......................................................................................................................................18
Pressure (p) ............................................................................................................................................21
Pressure Measurements.........................................................................................................................23
Absolute, Gage, and Vacuum Pressure Relations...............................................................................30
Buoyancy.................................................................................................................................................32
Hydrostatic Pressure.............................................................................................................................34
Pascal's Law (the law of hydraulics)....................................................................................................39
Pressure Difference for Fluid Flow......................................................................................................41
Chapter 1 Summary..............................................................................................................................43
Chapter 2 Compression of Fluids......................................................................................45
Compressibility......................................................................................................................................45
The Combined Gas Law........................................................................................................................45
Effects of Pressure Changes on Confined Fluids ...............................................................................47
Effects of Temperature Changes on Confined Fluids........................................................................48
Filling and Venting................................................................................................................................48
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OPERATIONS TRAINING PROGRAM
Chapter 2 Summary..............................................................................................................................51
Chapter 3 NATURAL CIRCULATION FLOW..............................................................53
Natural Circulation................................................................................................................................53
Conditions Required For Natural Circulation....................................................................................54
Chapter 3 Summary..............................................................................................................................56
Chapter 4 VOLUMETRIC AND MASS FLOW RATE..................................................57
Volume (V)..............................................................................................................................................57
Volumetric Flow Rate ()........................................................................................................................59
Mass, Density, and Specific Volume.....................................................................................................64
Mass Flow Rate ()...................................................................................................................................66
The Steady Flow Condition...................................................................................................................68
Continuity of Flow.................................................................................................................................68
Chapter 4 Summary..............................................................................................................................75
Chapter 5 TYPES OF FLOW............................................................................................77
Laminar Flow.........................................................................................................................................77
Turbulent Flow.......................................................................................................................................77
Factors Influencing Type of Flow.........................................................................................................78
Ideal Fluid...............................................................................................................................................79
Noise Level and Flow Rate....................................................................................................................79
Chapter 5 Summary..............................................................................................................................80
Chapter 6 FORMS OF ENERGY &THE GENERAL ENERGY EQUATION...........81
General Energy Equation......................................................................................................................81
Potential Energy (PE)............................................................................................................................83
Kinetic Energy (KE)..............................................................................................................................84
Flow Energy (FE)...................................................................................................................................84
Internal Energy (U)................................................................................................................................87
Heat, as an operator controlled input or output (Q)..........................................................................88
Work, as an operator controlled input or output (W)........................................................................89
General Energy Equation......................................................................................................................89
A Special Case of the General Energy Equation: Bernoulli's Principle...........................................92
Simplified Bernoulli's Equation............................................................................................................94
Specific Energies....................................................................................................................................96
Chapter 6 Summary:.............................................................................................................................98
ENERGY CONVERSIONS IN IDEAL FLUID SYSTEMS..........................................99
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OPERATIONS TRAINING PROGRAM
Energy Conversions in Ideal Fluid Systems........................................................................................99
Energy Conversions for Changes in Cross-Sectional Area (Flow Area)..........................................99
Energy Conversions for Changes in Elevation..................................................................................102
Chapter 7 Summary:...........................................................................................................................105
Chapter 7 Energy Conversions in Real Fluid Systems..................................................107
Friction..................................................................................................................................................107
Fluid Friction........................................................................................................................................107
Viscosity................................................................................................................................................108
Energy Conversion by Fluid Friction in Real Fluids........................................................................108
Energy Conversion by Fluid Friction................................................................................................110
Open versus Closed Fluid Flow Systems...........................................................................................116
Energy Conversions in Closed Systems.............................................................................................116
_Head_ ...............................................................................................................................................120
Head Loss due to Friction...................................................................................................................125
Throttling..............................................................................................................................................126
Overcoming Head Losses....................................................................................................................127
Centrifugal Pump Operation..............................................................................................................128
Positive Displacement Pump Operation............................................................................................129
Using the General Energy Equation to Analyse Real Fluids...........................................................130
Specific Rules Using Arrow Analysis.................................................................................................135
The General Energy Equation and Diagnosis using Arrow Analysis.............................................137
Chapter 8 Summary:...........................................................................................................................149
Chapter 8 Fluid Flow Measurement................................................................................151
Flow Measuring Devices......................................................................................................................151
Differential Pressure Meters...............................................................................................................151
Orifice Plates........................................................................................................................................151
Flow Nozzles.........................................................................................................................................153
Venturi Tubes.......................................................................................................................................153
Other Applications of the Venturi Principle.....................................................................................154
Chapter 9 Summary:...........................................................................................................................157
Water Hammer and Pipe Whip......................................................................................159
Mechanisms of Water Hammer..........................................................................................................159
Occurrence of Water Hammer (and Steam Hammer).....................................................................159
Cavitation..............................................................................................................................................165
Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps........................................................................................................165
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OPERATIONS TRAINING PROGRAM
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH).....................................................................................................167
Conditions Causing Cavitation...........................................................................................................168
Minimizing Gas Formation in Liquid Piping Systems.....................................................................170
Other Pump Problems.........................................................................................................................170
Possible Results of Water Hammer....................................................................................................171
Methods of Water (and Steam) Hammer/ Pipe Jet & Pipe Whip Prevention ..............................174
Chapter 10 Summary..........................................................................................................................176
Chapter 9 Unintended Siphoning.....................................................................................177
Introduction..........................................................................................................................................177
Siphoning..............................................................................................................................................177
Chapter 11 Summary..........................................................................................................................180

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