Overview (1 lecture)
Consideration of the need to engineer surfaces in terms of the provision of essential properties,
protection, and processing or service issues. Examples of surface engineering at the nanoscale and
Physical characteristics of the surfaces of materials (5 lectures)
Chemical bonding and intermolecular forces. Interactions between solid surfaces at the molecular
level. Surface energies. Wetting behaviour. Adhesive contact.
Contacts between macroscopic surfaces. Friction and lubrication. Sliding wear. Abrasive and
erosive wear behaviour. Use of dimensional analysis for formulating wear rate equations.
Hardness testing (1 lecture)
The need for hardness testing. Spherical indentation. Scaling laws in indentation. Vickers
indentation. Berkovich indentation. Knoop indentation. Nanoindentation. ISO 14577.
Surface engineering processing techniques (3 lectures)
Surface modification with chemical composition unchanged: shot peening, blasting, transformation
hardening, surface melting.
Surface modification with chemical composition changed for ferrous alloys: carburising,
carbonitriding, nitriding, nitrocarburising, boronising. Revision of relevant solutions of the
diffusion equation to describe the physical processes involved in these technologies.
Metallised layers, e.g., chromising. Ion implantation. Physical vapour deposition. Chemical vapour
deposition. TiN, TiC, SiC and diamond CVD formation. Plating. Anodising. Hardfacing. Thermal
Case studies of surface engineering (2 lectures)
Inorganic glazes for traditional ceramics. Residual stresses in surface coatings and their effects.
Enamelling, titanium nitride coatings, diamond-like carbon coatings, coatings for cutting tools, selfcleaning
window glass, coatings for plastic optical lenses, Surface modification in biomaterials.
Coatings on materials used in joint replacements, coatings for ceramic fibres in ceramic matrix