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Environmental StudiesFor Undergraduate Coursesof all Branches of Higher Education
Neeraj Yadav

Environmental StudiesFor Undergraduate Coursesof all Branches of Higher Education

Neeraj Yadav | 15-Dec-2015 |
Natural resource , Ecosystem , BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION , Environmental polution , Social issue and environment , HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT ,

Hi friends, here Neeraj Yadav uploaded notes for Environmental Studies with title Environmental StudiesFor Undergraduate Coursesof all Branches of Higher Education. You can download this lecture notes, ebook by clicking on the below file name or icon.

UNIT 1: THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTALSTUDIES1.1DEFINITION, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE31.1.1Definition31.1.2Scope31.1.3Importance51.2NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS81.2.1Institutions in Environment91.2.2People in Environment12UNIT 2: NATURAL RESOURCES2.1 INTRODUCTION162.2 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES202.2.1 Natural resources and associated problems202.2.2 Non-renewable resources222.2.3 Renewable resources22a.Forest Resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies.23Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal peopleb.Water Resources: Use and over-utilisation of surface and ground water,26floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams – benefits and problems.c.Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting30and using mineral resources, case studies.d.Food Resources: World food problems, Changes in landuse by agriculture and32grazing, Effects of modern agriculture, Fertilizer/ pesticide problems,Water logging and salinitye.Energy Resources: Increasing energy needs, Renewable/ non renewable,35Use of Alternate energy sources, Case studiesf.Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man-induced land-slides,48soil erosion and desertification.UNIT 3: ECOSYSTEMS3.1Concept of an ecosystem543.1.1 Understanding ecosystems553.1.2 Ecosystem degradation553.1.3 Resource utilisation563.2 Structure and functions of an ecosystem563.3 Producers, consumers and decomposers573.4 Energy flow in the ecosystem583.4.1 The water cycle583.4.2 The Carbon cycle593.4.3 The Oxygen cycle603.4.4 The Nitrogen cycle603.4.5 The energy cycle613.4.6 Integration of cycles in nature623.5Ecological succession623.6Food chains, Food webs and Ecological pyramids623.6.1 The food chains623.6.2 The food webs633.6.3 The ecological pyramids633.7Introduction, Types, Characteristic features, Structure and functions633.7.1 Forest ecosystem653.7.2 Grassland ecosystem703.7.3 Desert ecosystem743.7.4 Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, oceans)75UNIT 4: BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION4.1 INTRODUCTION – DEFINITION: GENETIC, SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY824.1.1 Genetic diversity824.1.2 Species diversity824.1.3 Ecosystem diversity834.2 BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA4.3 VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY: CONSUMPTIVE, PRODUCTIVE USE, SOCIAL, ETHICAL,AESTHETIC AND OPTION VALUES844.3.1Consumptive value854.3.2 Productive value864.3.3 Social value864.3.4 Ethical value884.3.5 Aesthetic value884.3.6 Option value884.4 BIODIVERSITY AT GLOBAL, NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS884.5 INDIA AS A MEGA DIVERSITY NATION894.6 HOTSPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY904.7 THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: HABITAT LOSS, POACHING OF WILDLIFE,MAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS914.8 ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA944.8.1 Common Plant species944.8.2 Common Animal species994.9 CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: IN-SITU AND EX-SITU1044.9.1 In-situ conservation1044.9.2 Ex-situ conservation108UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION5.1 DEFINITION1125.2 CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES OF:1135.2.1 Air Pollution1135.2.2 Water Pollution1235.2.3 Soil Pollution1315.2.4 Marine Pollution1355.2.5 Noise Pollution1405.2.6 Thermal Pollution1425.2.7 Nuclear hazards1435.3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURESOF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE1455.4 ROLE OF INDIVIDUALS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION5.5 POLLUTION CASE STUDIES1535.6 DISASTER MANAGEMENT: FLOODS, EARTHQUAKES, CYCLONES, LANDSLIDES156UNIT 6: SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT6.1 FROM UNSUSTAINABLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1656.2 URBAN PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENERGY1676.3 WATER CONSERVATION, RAIN WATER HARVESTING, WATERSHEDMANAGEMENT1686.3.1 Water conservation1686.3.2 Rain water harvesting1706.3.3 Watershed management1716.4 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE; ITS PROBLEMSAND CONCERNS. CASE STUDIES1726.5 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS1736.5.1 Resource consumption patterns and the need for their equitable utilisation1736.5.2 Equity – Disparity in the Northern and Southern countries1756.5.3 Urban – rural equity issues1756.5.4 The need for Gender Equity1756.5.5 Preserving resources for future generations1766.5.6 The rights of animals1776.5.7 The ethical basis of environment education and awareness1786.5.8 The conservation ethic and traditional value systems of India1816.6 CLIMATE CHANGE, GLOBAL WARMING, ACID RAIN, OZONE LAYER DEPLETION,NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST. CASE STUDIES1826.6.1 Climate change1826.6.2 Global warming1836.6.3 Acid rain1846.6.4 Ozone layer depletion1856.6.5 Nuclear Accidents and Nuclear Holocaust1866.7 WASTELAND RECLAMATION1876.8 CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS1896.9 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT1936.10 AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT1946.11 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT6.12 WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT1976.13 FOREST CONSERVATION ACT1996.14 ISSUES INVOLVED IN ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION2016.14.1Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)2016.14.2 Citizens actions and action groups2026.15 PUBLIC AWARENESS2046.15.1 Using an Environmental Calendar of Activities2046.15.2 What can I do?205UNIT 7: HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT7.1 POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION AMONG NATIONS2147.1.1 Global population growth2147.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM2157.2.1 Methods of sterilization2177.1.2 Urbanization2177.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH2207.3.1 Environmental health2217.3.2 Climate and health2237.3.3 Infectious diseases2247.3.4 Water-related diseases2277.3.5 Risks due to chemicals in food2317.3.6 Cancer and environment2327.4 HUMAN RIGHTS2337.4.1 Equity2337.4.2 Nutrition, health and human rights2347.4.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers2357.5 VALUE EDUCATION2367.5.1 Environmental Values2377.5.2 Valuing Nature2407.5.3 Valuing cultures2417.5.4 Social justice2417.5.5 Human heritage2427.5.6 Equitable use of Resources2427.5.7 Common Property Resources2427.5.8 Ecological degradation

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